With the intention of protecting indigenous species throughout the country, federally-owned wildlife refuges were established. The Kenai National Wildlife Refuge is an example of this program in Alaska. Under international treaty requirements, the United States needed to begin taking action to preserve species that roamed in the wild throughout the country, and if there is one state in the nation where wildlife roams free, it is Alaska. The refuge also manages to maintain water quality, provide opportunities for scientific research and education, help with land management training, and provide recreation opportunities in a save and eco-conscious manner. Animals on the land that fall under the protective umbrella of the refuge include moose, bear, wolves, goats, Dall sheep, a variety of migratory birds and birds that spend the lifespan in the area, the shrew, the marmot, the red squirrel, mountain goats, wood frogs, beavers, and the little brown bat, as well as numerous other mammals and aquatic creatures. A number of organized education experiences are available for field trips, community groups, and home school programs. The refuge also hosts numerous scout campouts each year for the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts organizations. In addition to exploring the refuge, there are a variety of activities available such as canoeing, fishing, cabins, Federal Subsistence Hunting, and winter activities.