Andrey Kamenov, Ph.D. Probability and Statistics
Andrey Kamenov is a data scientist working for Advameg Inc. His background includes teaching statistics, stochastic processes and financial mathematics in Moscow State University and working for a hedge fund. His academic interests range from statistical data analysis to optimal stopping theory. Andrey also enjoys his hobbies of photography, reading and powerlifting.
Where are the most innovative companies in the U.S. located? For most, the answer seems quite obvious: Silicon Valley.
The San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) has held the top spot since at least 2000. Several companies made their contributions — AMD, HP, Cisco and Apple, to name a few. In 2015, Google was issued the largest number of patents in Silicon Valley. We took a deeper look at the innovation here in our earlier post.
In several previous posts, we focused on finding regional patterns in the employment numbers changes for U.S. regions. Unsurprisingly, the lists are dominated by industries from the larger sectors, such as healthcare and education.
What we would like to do next is to examine the distribution of small businesses in the Northeast, both geographically and among industry sectors. In this series, we focus on the businesses falling into the first two columns of the County Business Profile data: establishments with fewer than 10 employees.
In 2017, Chicago had the most gun violence related incidents among all U.S. cities. Safety is becoming more and more important to the city’s residents, as well as anyone looking to move to the city.
Just look at the raw numbers: There were 2,547 shootings with at least one victim (excluding accidental ones). In total, 539 people were killed and 2,626 were injured. The most shootings (291) happened in July, while the fewest happened in March (144).
In five years, 565 law enforcements workers died in work-related incidents. Most of them were police officers. The National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund’s website is an excellent source for detailed reports.
The general statistics are also provided by the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries.
According to the data available, there are two main fatality causes. The most common cause is shooting (by other people, excluding suicides), with 196 cases. Roadway incidents are also very common, with 183 cases.
The good news is that there are small, but statistically significant, negative trends for both types of incidents. Actually, both numbers reached their historic lows recently. In 2013, only 33 fatal roadway incidents occurred, and 26 officers were shot.
The second half of the year traditionally sees more new housing starts. In fact, in this post, we’ll see that seasonality here is somewhat more complex. Is your job is related to the construction industry? Then you most likely have to take this into account.
For a regular investor, the single most important field in the Prosper dataset is the Prosper borrower rating. This is an estimate of a borrower’s creditworthiness based on various other metrics, including employment length, number of open accounts, prior delinquencies and many others. Based on the aggregate score, the borrowers are then split into seven groups: AA, A, B and so on. Alternatively, an investor may use numerical ratings ranging from 1 to 7, with 7 corresponding to the safest, most trustworthy borrowers.
Workplace violence (intentional injury caused by a person) remains to be the second leading cause of work-related fatalities in the U.S. It accounts for around 10 percent of all work-related deaths each year (with another 4 to 5 percent being suicides).
The vast majority of these cases were shootings, which constituted 82 percent of all homicides (and 49 percent of all suicides).
Importantly, the number of homicides has fallen by a third since 2003. In 2017, 417 incidents were recorded. This is not much higher than the lowest number ever: 404 in 2013.
On the other hand, the number of suicides keeps growing (albeit rather slowly). Here, 2013 also stands out — but this time it’s because of the highest number (282 incidents).
One particular area always stands out when discussing innovation in the United States: a portion of Santa Clara County, CA better known as Silicon Valley. The valley serves as a home to several of the largest high-tech companies in the country.
It’s not about the high-tech giants, though. The number of companies that were issued at least one new patent has doubled since 2000. The number of individually-issued patents also keeps growing slowly but steadily, as evidenced by the chart below.
The deadliest shooting in U.S. history happened last year in Las Vegas. But there is much more to gun-related incidents. The Gun Violence Archive database is one of the most complete sources of data. By now, it has records of over 30,000 gun-related incidents that happened this year — and that’s excluding accidental shootings.
Is there any pattern? Or are these incidents completely random?
Here’s a plot showing the total number of incidents, day-by-day, from the start of the year.