Bear River City, Utah

Submit your own pictures of this town and show them to the world

  • OSM Map
  • General Map
  • Google Map
  • MSN Map
Population in 2019: 898 (0% urban, 100% rural).
Population change since 2000: +19.7%
 
Males: 465  (51.9%)
Females: 433  (48.1%)
Median resident age:

36.9 years
Utah median age:

31.2 years

Zip codes: 84301.

Estimated median household income in 2019: $73,404 (it was $52,212 in 2000)
Bear River City:

$73,404
UT:

$75,780

Estimated per capita income in 2019: $30,041 (it was $17,296 in 2000)

Bear River City town income, earnings, and wages data

Estimated median house or condo value in 2019: $225,565 (it was $116,600 in 2000)
Bear River City:

$225,565
UT:

$330,300

Median gross rent in 2019: $781.

March 2019 cost of living index in Bear River City: 82.5 (low, U.S. average is 100)
Percentage of residents living in poverty in 2019: 6.8%
Recent articles from our blog. Our writers, many of them Ph.D. graduates or candidates, create easy-to-read articles on a wide variety of topics.
Bear River City, UT forum
Recent posts about Bear River City, Utah on our local forum with over 2,200,000 registered users:
Ogden to Bear River City: How's the drive?  (3 replies)
From Louisiana to Bear River City  (12 replies)
South Georgia to North Utah  (14 replies)
What surprised you about Utah?  (26 replies)

Latest news from Bear River City, UT collected exclusively by city-data.com from local newspapers, TV, and radio stations

Ancestries: English (18.5%), Danish (14.8%), German (12.3%), Norwegian (10.2%), American (7.4%), European (5.2%).

Current Local Time: MST time zone

Elevation: 4253 feet

Land area: 1.57 square miles.

Population density: 572 people per square mile   (low).

Bear River City, Utah map

12 residents are foreign born

This town:

1.6%
Utah:

8.5%

Median real estate property taxes paid for housing units with mortgages in 2019: $1,273 (0.6%)
Median real estate property taxes paid for housing units with no mortgage in 2019: $1,254 (0.5%)

Nearest city with pop. 50,000+: Ogden, UT (28.1 miles , pop. 77,226).

Nearest city with pop. 200,000+: Northeast Jefferson, CO (390.0 miles , pop. 450,166).

Nearest city with pop. 1,000,000+: Phoenix, AZ (559.4 miles , pop. 1,321,045).

Nearest cities:

Honeyville, UT (1.6 miles ),
Elwood, UT (2.0 miles ),
Corinne, UT (2.2 miles ),
Deweyville, UT (2.4 miles ),
Tremonton, UT (2.6 miles ),
Garland, UT (2.9 miles ),
Brigham City, UT (3.0 miles ),
Wellsville, UT (3.2 miles )

Latitude: 41.62 N, Longitude: 112.13 W

Area code: 435

Distribution of median household income in Bear River City, UT in 2019
Distribution of house value in Bear River City, UT in 2019
Bear River City satellite photo by USGS
Unemployment in November 2020:
Here:

3.0%
Utah:

3.9%
Population change in the 1990s: +48 (+6.8%).
Most common industries in Bear River City, UT (%)
Both Males Females
Most common industries in 2000
  • Transportation equipment (12.2%)
  • Educational services (11.9%)
  • Agriculture, forestry, fishing & hunting (11.6%)
  • Construction (9.1%)
  • Public administration (6.4%)
  • Computer & electronic products (6.4%)
  • Metal & metal products (3.4%)
Most common industries for males in 2000
  • Agriculture, forestry, fishing & hunting (18.9%)
  • Construction (14.1%)
  • Computer & electronic products (10.8%)
  • Transportation equipment (10.8%)
  • Metal & metal products (5.4%)
  • Miscellaneous manufacturing (3.8%)
  • Farm product raw materials merchant wholesalers (3.8%)
Most common industries for females in 2000
  • Educational services (22.4%)
  • Transportation equipment (14.0%)
  • Public administration (11.2%)
  • Accommodation & food services (5.6%)
  • Social assistance (4.9%)
  • Health care (4.2%)
  • Personal & laundry services (3.5%)
Most common occupations in Bear River City, UT (%)
Both Males Females
Most common occupations in 2000
  • Farmers and farm managers (6.7%)
  • Other office and administrative support workers, including supervisors (6.7%)
  • Material recording, scheduling, dispatching, and distributing workers (5.2%)
  • Other management occupations, except farmers and farm managers (4.9%)
  • Other production occupations, including supervisors (4.9%)
  • Driver/sales workers and truck drivers (4.6%)
  • Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations (4.0%)
Most common occupations for males in 2000
  • Farmers and farm managers (10.3%)
  • Other production occupations, including supervisors (8.6%)
  • Driver/sales workers and truck drivers (8.1%)
  • Material recording, scheduling, dispatching, and distributing workers (7.0%)
  • Laborers and material movers, hand (6.5%)
  • Agricultural workers, including supervisors (6.5%)
  • Other management occupations, except farmers and farm managers (5.4%)
Most common occupations for females in 2000
  • Other office and administrative support workers, including supervisors (11.9%)
  • Secretaries and administrative assistants (7.0%)
  • Child care workers (4.9%)
  • Cooks and food preparation workers (4.9%)
  • Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers (4.2%)
  • Assemblers and fabricators (4.2%)
  • Other management occupations, except farmers and farm managers (4.2%)

Average climate in Bear River City, Utah

Based on data reported by over 4,000 weather stations

Bear River City, Utah average temperatures Bear River City, Utah average precipitation Bear River City, Utah humidity Bear River City, Utah wind speed Bear River City, Utah snowfall Bear River City, Utah sunshine Bear River City, Utah clear and cloudy days
Air pollution and air quality trends
(lower is better)
AQI CO NO2 SO2 Ozone PM2.5
Air Quality Index

Air Quality Index (AQI) level in 2018 was 99.9. This is worse than average.

City:

99.9
U.S.:

74.2
Carbon Monoxide Level
Nitrogen Dioxide Level

Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) [ppb] level in 2018 was 7.01. This is worse than average. Closest monitor was 10.1 miles away from the city center.

City:

7.01
U.S.:

5.56
Sulfur Dioxide Level

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) [ppb] level in 2005 was 1.02. This is significantly better than average. Closest monitor was 16.9 miles away from the city center.

City:

1.02
U.S.:

1.79
Ozone Level

Ozone [ppb] level in 2018 was 35.8. This is about average. Closest monitor was 8.8 miles away from the city center.

City:

35.8
U.S.:

33.3
Particulate Matter Level

Particulate Matter (PM2.5) [µg/m3] level in 2018 was 8.42. This is about average. Closest monitor was 10.1 miles away from the city center.

City:

8.42
U.S.:

8.46

Earthquake activity:

Bear River City-area historical earthquake activity is significantly above Utah state average. It is 2063% greater than the overall U.S. average.

On 8/18/1959 at 06:37:13, a magnitude 7.7 (7.7 UK, Class: Major, Intensity: VIII - XII) earthquake occurred 217.2 miles away from the city center, causing $26,000,000 total damage
On 10/28/1983 at 14:06:06, a magnitude 7.3 (6.2 MB, 7.3 MS, 7.0 MW) earthquake occurred 190.3 miles away from Bear River City center, causing 2 deaths (2 shaking deaths) and 3 injuries, causing $15,000,000 total damage
On 10/3/1915 at 06:52:48, a magnitude 7.6 (7.6 UK) earthquake occurred 290.7 miles away from the city center
On 3/28/1975 at 02:31:05, a magnitude 6.2 (6.1 MB, 6.0 MS, 6.2 ML, Class: Strong, Intensity: VII - IX) earthquake occurred 32.8 miles away from the city center
On 3/18/2020 at 13:09:31, a magnitude 5.7 (5.7 MW, Depth: 7.4 mi, Class: Moderate, Intensity: VI - VII) earthquake occurred 59.8 miles away from Bear River City center
On 12/21/1932 at 06:10:09, a magnitude 7.2 (7.2 UK) earthquake occurred 381.5 miles away from the city center
Magnitude types: body-wave magnitude (MB), local magnitude (ML), surface-wave magnitude (MS), moment magnitude (MW)

Natural disasters:

The number of natural disasters in Box Elder County (8) is smaller than the US average (15).
Major Disasters (Presidential) Declared: 4
Emergencies Declared: 2

Causes of natural disasters: Floods: 5, Landslides: 3, Storms: 2, Drought: 1, Hurricane: 1, Mudslide: 1, Winter Storm: 1, Other: 1 (Note: some incidents may be assigned to more than one category).
Bear River City topographic map

Hospitals and medical centers near Bear River City:

  • BEAR RIVER VALLEY CARE CENTER (Nursing Home, about 8 miles away; TREMONTON, UT)
  • BOX ELDER COUNTY NURSING HOME (Nursing Home, about 8 miles away; TREMONTON, UT)
  • BEAR RIVER VALLEY HOSPITAL Acute Care Hospitals (about 9 miles away; TREMONTON, UT)
  • WILLOW GLEN HEALTH AND REHAB, LLC (Nursing Home, about 9 miles away; BRIGHAM CITY, UT)
  • INTEGRITY HOME HEALTH (Home Health Center, about 10 miles away; BRIGHAM CITY, UT)
  • PIONEER CARE CENTER (Nursing Home, about 10 miles away; BRIGHAM CITY, UT)
  • MEDSHARES NORTHWEST UTAH (Home Health Center, about 10 miles away; BRIGHAM CITY, UT)

Colleges/universities with over 2000 students nearest to Bear River City:

  • Utah State University (about 19 miles; Logan, UT; Full-time enrollment: 21,131)
  • Weber State University (about 31 miles; Ogden, UT; FT enrollment: 17,655)
  • Latter-day Saints Business College (about 60 miles; Salt Lake City, UT; FT enrollment: 2,059)
  • University of Utah (about 61 miles; Salt Lake City, UT; FT enrollment: 28,454)
  • Westminster College (about 63 miles; Salt Lake City, UT; FT enrollment: 2,870)
  • Western Governors University (about 66 miles; Salt Lake City, UT; FT enrollment: 31,481)
  • Salt Lake Community College (about 66 miles; Salt Lake City, UT; FT enrollment: 20,797)

Public elementary/middle school in Bear River City:

  • CENTURY SCHOOL (Students: 510, Location: 5820 N 4800 W, Grades: KG-5)
See full list of schools located in Bear River City

Points of interest:

Click to draw/clear town borders

Cemetery: Bear River Cemetery (1). Display/hide its location on the map

Birthplace of: Arthur Wallace - Soil scientist.

Box Elder County has a predicted average indoor radon screening level between 2 and 4 pCi/L (pico curies per liter) - Moderate Potential
Average household size:
This town:

3.2 people
Utah:

3.1 people

Percentage of family households:
This town:

84.8%
Whole state:

75.2%

Percentage of households with unmarried partners:
This town:

3.0%
Whole state:

4.6%


Likely homosexual households (counted as self-reported same-sex unmarried-partner households)
  • Lesbian couples: 0.7% of all households
  • Gay men: 0.4% of all households

For population 15 years and over in Bear River City:

Marital status in Bear River City, UT
  • Never married: 21.8%
  • Now married: 67.0%
  • Separated: 0.3%
  • Widowed: 4.1%
  • Divorced: 6.9%

For population 25 years and over in Bear River City:

  • High school or higher: 94.1%
  • Bachelor's degree or higher: 20.2%
  • Graduate or professional degree: 3.9%
  • Unemployed: 1.5%
  • Mean travel time to work (commute): 24.9 minutes
Educational Attainment in 2019
School Enrollment by Level of School in 2019
Education Gini index (Inequality in education)
Here:

7.8
Utah average:

10.2

Presidential Elections Results

Graphs represent county-level data. Detailed 2008 Election Results

Religion statistics for Bear River City, UT (based on Box Elder County data)

Religions Adherents in 2010
Religions Adherents - Change between 2000 and 2010
ReligionAdherentsCongregations
Other41,921105
Catholic2,0082
Evangelical Protestant80710
Mainline Protestant3893
None4,850-
Source: Clifford Grammich, Kirk Hadaway, Richard Houseal, Dale E.Jones, Alexei Krindatch, Richie Stanley and Richard H.Taylor. 2012. 2010 U.S.Religion Census: Religious Congregations & Membership Study. Association of Statisticians of American Religious Bodies. Jones, Dale E., et al. 2002. Congregations and Membership in the United States 2000. Nashville, TN: Glenmary Research Center. Graphs represent county-level data

Food Environment Statistics:

Number of grocery stores: 4
Box Elder County:

0.84 / 10,000 pop.
Utah:

1.37 / 10,000 pop.
Number of supercenters and club stores: 1
This county:

0.21 / 10,000 pop.
State:

0.18 / 10,000 pop.
Number of convenience stores (no gas): 2
Box Elder County:

0.42 / 10,000 pop.
Utah:

0.41 / 10,000 pop.
Number of convenience stores (with gas): 15
Box Elder County:

3.14 / 10,000 pop.
State:

2.82 / 10,000 pop.
Number of full-service restaurants: 15
Here:

3.14 / 10,000 pop.
State:

5.09 / 10,000 pop.
Adult diabetes rate:
This county:

6.1%
Utah:

6.3%
Adult obesity rate:
Box Elder County:

27.6%
Utah:

23.6%

Health and Nutrition:

Healthy diet rate:
This city:

48.4%
Utah:

48.1%

Average overall health of teeth and gums:
This city:

45.5%
Utah:

45.5%

Average BMI:
This city:

29.3
Utah:

28.4

People feeling badly about themselves:
Here:

20.6%
State:

21.5%

People not drinking alcohol at all:
Here:

10.8%
State:

10.5%

Average hours sleeping at night:
Bear River City:

6.8
State:

6.8

Overweight people:
This city:

35.5%
Utah:

31.6%

General health condition:
Bear River City:

56.3%
Utah:

56.4%

Average condition of hearing:
Bear River City:

77.4%
Utah:

79.7%

More about Health and Nutrition of Bear River City, UT Residents

Bear River City government finances - Expenditure in 2017 (per resident):

  • Current Operations - Regular Highways: $62,000 ($69.04)
    Central Staff Services: $56,000 ($62.36)
    Solid Waste Management: $48,000 ($53.45)
    Sewerage: $42,000 ($46.77)
    Natural Resources - Other: $29,000 ($32.29)
    Miscellaneous Commercial Activities - Other: $20,000 ($22.27)
    General - Other: $17,000 ($18.93)
    Protective Inspection and Regulation - Other: $11,000 ($12.25)
    Financial Administration: $9,000 ($10.02)
    General Public Buildings: $9,000 ($10.02)
    Parks and Recreation: $8,000 ($8.91)
    Libraries: $1,000 ($1.11)
  • General - Interest on Debt: $1,000 ($1.11)
  • Intergovernmental to Local - Other - Local Fire Protection: $13,000 ($14.48)
    Other - Regular Highways: $2,000 ($2.23)
  • Intergovernmental to State - Sewerage: $1,000 ($1.11)
  • Total Salaries and Wages: $38,000 ($42.32)

Bear River City government finances - Revenue in 2017 (per resident):

  • Charges - Sewerage: $63,000 ($70.16)
    Solid Waste Management: $52,000 ($57.91)
    Other: $29,000 ($32.29)
    Miscellaneous Commercial Activities: $11,000 ($12.25)
    Parks and Recreation: $2,000 ($2.23)
  • Local Intergovernmental - Other: $4,000 ($4.45)
  • Miscellaneous - Interest Earnings: $7,000 ($7.80)
    Rents: $4,000 ($4.45)
    Donations From Private Sources: $1,000 ($1.11)
  • State Intergovernmental - Highways: $46,000 ($51.22)
  • Tax - General Sales and Gross Receipts: $108,000 ($120.27)
    Property: $38,000 ($42.32)
    Other License: $16,000 ($17.82)
    Other Selective Sales: $4,000 ($4.45)
    Occupation and Business License - Other: $1,000 ($1.11)

Bear River City government finances - Debt in 2017 (per resident):

  • Long Term Debt - Beginning Outstanding - Unspecified Public Purpose: $18,000 ($20.04)
    Outstanding Unspecified Public Purpose: $11,000 ($12.25)
    Retired Unspecified Public Purpose: $7,000 ($7.80)

Bear River City government finances - Cash and Securities in 2017 (per resident):

  • Other Funds - Cash and Securities: $647,000 ($720.49)

7.19% of this county's 2016 resident taxpayers lived in other counties in 2015 ($44,852 average adjusted gross income)

Here:

7.19%
Utah average:

7.04%

10 or fewer of this county's residents moved from foreign countries between 2015 and 2016.

Top counties from which taxpayers relocated into this county between 2015 and 2016:
from Weber County, UT  2.01% ($46,828 average AGI)
from Cache County, UT  1.08% ($36,492)
from Davis County, UT  0.74% ($53,800)


6.00% of this county's 2015 resident taxpayers moved to other counties in 2016 ($50,806 average adjusted gross income)

Here:

6.00%
Utah average:

6.65%

10 or fewer of this county's residents moved to foreign countries between 2015 and 2016.

Top counties to which taxpayers relocated from this county between 2015 and 2016:
to Weber County, UT  1.65% ($58,456 average AGI)
to Cache County, UT  0.93% ($41,417)
to Salt Lake County, UT  0.59% ($41,175)

Strongest AM radio stations in Bear River City:

  • KSOS (800 AM; 10 kW; BRIGHAM CITY, UT; Owner: SIMMONS-SLC, LS, LLC)
  • KVNU (610 AM; 5 kW; LOGAN, UT; Owner: SUN VALLEY RADIO,INC.)
  • KALL (700 AM; 50 kW; NORTH SALT LAKE CITY, UT; Owner: CITICASTERS LICENSES, L.P.)
  • KXOL (1660 AM; 10 kW; BRIGHAM CITY, UT; Owner: SIMMONS-SLC, LS, LLC)
  • KIQN (1010 AM; 50 kW; TOOELE, UT)
  • KLGN (1390 AM; 5 kW; LOGAN, UT; Owner: SUN VALLEY RADIO, INC.)
  • KSL (1160 AM; 50 kW; SALT LAKE CITY, UT; Owner: BONNEVILLE HOLDING COMPANY)
  • KANN (1120 AM; 10 kW; ROY, UT; Owner: FAITH COMMUNICATIONS CORPORATION)
  • KLO (1430 AM; 10 kW; OGDEN, UT; Owner: KLO BROADCASTING CO.)
  • KTKK (630 AM; 10 kW; SANDY, UT; Owner: UNITED BROADCASTING COMPANY)
  • KBEE (860 AM; 10 kW; SALT LAKE CITY, UT; Owner: CITADEL BROADCASTING COMPANY)
  • KZNS (1280 AM; 10 kW; SALT LAKE CITY, UT; Owner: SIMMONS-SLC, LS, LLC)
  • KNRS (570 AM; 5 kW; SALT LAKE CITY, UT; Owner: CITICASTERS LICENSES, L.P.)

Strongest FM radio stations in Bear River City:

  • KRAR (106.9 FM; BRIGHAM CITY, UT; Owner: MERCURY BROADCASTING COMPANY, INC.)
  • KJQN (100.7 FM; BRIGHAM CITY, UT; Owner: SIMMONS-SLC, LS, LLC)
  • KBNZ (104.9 FM; TREMONTON, UT; Owner: 3 POINT MEDIA - UTAH, LLC)
  • KYFO-FM (95.5 FM; OGDEN, UT; Owner: BIBLE BROADCASTING NETWORK, INC.)
  • KUDD (107.9 FM; ROY, UT; Owner: MILLCREEK BROADCASTING, L.L.C.)
  • KUSU-FM (91.5 FM; LOGAN, UT; Owner: UTAH STATE UNIV. OF AGRI. & APP. SCI)
  • K220HI (91.9 FM; CLARKSTON, UT; Owner: CALVARY CHAPEL OF TWIN FALLS, INC.)
  • KVFX (94.5 FM; LOGAN, UT; Owner: SUN VALLEY RADIO,INC.)
  • KCPX (105.7 FM; CENTERVILLE, UT; Owner: MERCURY BROADCASTING COMPANY, INC.)
  • KSOP-FM (104.3 FM; SALT LAKE CITY, UT; Owner: KSOP, INC.)
  • KLZX (95.9 FM; WESTON, ID; Owner: SUN VALLEY RADIO INC)
  • K272DP (102.3 FM; TOOELE, UT; Owner: FAMILY STATIONS, INC.)
  • KBZN (97.9 FM; OGDEN, UT; Owner: CAPITOL BROADCASTING, INC.)
  • KRCL (90.9 FM; SALT LAKE CITY, UT; Owner: LISTENERS COMMUNITY RADIO OF UTAH)
  • KBER (101.1 FM; OGDEN, UT; Owner: CITADEL BROADCASTING COMPANY)
  • KISN-FM (97.1 FM; SALT LAKE CITY, UT; Owner: CLEAR CHANNEL BROADCASTING LICENSES, INC.)
  • KKAT (101.9 FM; OGDEN, UT; Owner: CITICASTERS LICENSES, L.P.)
  • KSFI (100.3 FM; SALT LAKE CITY, UT; Owner: SIMMONS-SLC, LS, LLC)
  • KUBL-FM (93.3 FM; SALT LAKE CITY, UT; Owner: CITADEL BROADCASTING COMPANY)
  • KOSY-FM (106.5 FM; SPANISH FORK, UT; Owner: MERCURY BROADCASTING COMPANY, INC.)

TV broadcast stations around Bear River City:

  • K59BV (Channel 59; LAVA HOT SPRINGS, ID; Owner: STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION (IEPBS))
  • KUTH (Channel 12; LOGAN, UT; Owner: LOGAN 12, INC.)
  • KPNZ (Channel 24; OGDEN, UT; Owner: UTAH COMMUNICATIONS, LLC)

Bear River City fatal accident list:

Jun 24, 2003 02:37 PM, 6400n5000w, Vehicles: 2, Persons: 5, Fatalities: 1
Jan 8, 2000 06:20 PM, Sr-13, Lat: 41.603535, Lon: -112.127312, Vehicles: 2, Persons: 4, Fatalities: 1, Drunk persons involved: 1
  • National Bridge Inventory (NBI) Statistics
  • 5Number of bridges
  • 20ft / 6.4mTotal length
  • 2,774Total average daily traffic
  • 581Total average daily truck traffic
  • 3,431Total future (year 2030) average daily traffic
Most common first names in Bear River City, UT among deceased individuals
NameCountLived (average)
Mary383.0 years
William373.4 years
Carrie289.1 years
Henry282.0 years
Andrea292.5 years
George285.0 years
Florence295.0 years
Boyd267.0 years
Elvira277.0 years
Kenneth269.0 years
Most common last names in Bear River City, UT among deceased individuals
Last nameCountLived (average)
Christensen1582.3 years
Anderson1283.6 years
Hansen1082.4 years
Holmgren878.5 years
Andersen682.7 years
Iverson674.8 years
Jensen681.1 years
Williams472.2 years
Gardner481.0 years
Lewis385.3 years
Houses and condos Apartments
Most commonly used house heating fuel in houses and condos in Bear River City, UT
  • 93.0%Utility gas
  • 4.1%Electricity
  • 2.1%Wood
  • 0.8%Bottled, tank, or LP gas
Most commonly used house heating fuel in apartments in Bear River City, UT
  • 62.5%Utility gas
  • 18.8%Electricity
  • 18.8%Fuel oil, kerosene, etc.


Bear River City compared to Utah state average:

  • Unemployed percentage significantly below state average.
  • Black race population percentage significantly below state average.
  • Hispanic race population percentage significantly below state average.
  • Foreign-born population percentage significantly below state average.
  • Renting percentage significantly below state average.
  • Length of stay since moving in significantly above state average.
  • House age above state average.
  • Number of college students below state average.

Bear River City on our top lists:

  • #89 on the list of "Top 101 cities with the most cars per house, population 500+"
  • #65 (84301) on the list of "Top 101 zip codes with the largest percentage of Danish first ancestries"
  • #8 on the list of "Top 101 counties with the highest Ozone (1-hour) air pollution readings in 2012 (ppm)"
  • #35 on the list of "Top 101 counties with highest percentage of residents voting for Romney (Republican) in the 2012 Presidential Election"
  • #55 on the list of "Top 101 counties with the most Other congregations"
  • #61 on the list of "Top 101 counties with the most Other adherents"
  • #90 on the list of "Top 101 counties with the lowest Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Annual air pollution readings in 2012 (µg/m3)"
There are 3 pilots and 1 other airmen in this city.
Cost of Living Calculator
Top Patent Applicants
Top Patent Applicants
  • Phillip Shimek (2)
  • Lee H. Pearson (1)

Total of 3 patent applications in 2008-2021.