Orange County, Virginia (VA)

  • OSM Map
  • General Map
  • Google Map
  • MSN Map
County population in 2012: 34,246 (42% urban, 58% rural); it was 25,881 in 2000
County owner-occupied with a mortgage or a loan houses and condos in 2010: 6,926
County owner-occupied free and clear houses and condos in 2010: 2,964
County owner-occupied houses and condos in 2000: 7,825
Renter-occupied apartments: 3,005 (it was 2,325 in 2000)
% of renters here:

23%
State:

33%

Land area: 342 sq. mi.

Water area: 1.7 sq. mi.

Population density: 99 people per square mile   (average).

Mar. 2013 cost of living index in Orange County: 87.7 (less than average, U.S. average is 100)

We are giving away a $200 prize - enter simply by sending us your own pictures of this county!
Click here to upload your Orange County photos (outside city limits)

Industries providing employment: Educational, health and social services (21.5%), Retail trade (16.5%), Professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste management services (14.7%).

Type of workers:

  • Private wage or salary: 59%
  • Government: 7%
  • Self-employed, not incorporated: 34%
  • Unpaid family work: 0%
Options
X
Data:
Options
Loading data...
Based on 2000-2013 data
Loading data...

123
Hide US histogram

Orange County races chart

Races in Orange County, Virginia:

  • White Non-Hispanic Alone (80.7%)
  • Black Non-Hispanic Alone (12.6%)
  • Hispanic or Latino (3.4%)
  • Two or more races (2.1%)
  • Asian alone (0.7%)
Median resident age:  42.0 years
Virginia median age:  37.0 years
Males: 16,422  (37.4%)
Females: 17,059  (62.6%)

Orange County,VA real estate house value trend

Average household size:
Orange County:

2.0 people
Virginia:

3 people
Estimated median household income in 2013: $62,841 ($42,889 in 1999)

This county:

$62841
Virginia:

$62666

Median contract rent in 2013 for apartments: $647 (lower quartile is $478, upper quartile is $987)
This county:

$647
State:

$922


Estimated median house or condo value in 2013: $225,506 (it was $112,800 in 2000)
Orange:

$225,506
Virginia:

$239,300
Lower value quartile - upper value quartile: $152,684 - $339,259
Median monthly housing costs for homes and condos with a mortgage: $1,370
Median monthly housing costs for units without a mortgage: $400

Institutionalized population: 558

Crime in 2005 (reported by the sheriff's office or county police, not the county total):


Crime in 2004 (reported by the sheriff's office or county police, not the county total):

Orange County, VA map from a distance

Single-family new house construction building permits:

  • 2000: 217 buildings, average cost: $139,700
  • 2001: 283 buildings, average cost: $148,800
  • 2002: 382 buildings, average cost: $142,800
  • 2003: 384 buildings, average cost: $164,700
  • 2004: 524 buildings, average cost: $180,100
  • 2005: 652 buildings, average cost: $224,900
  • 2006: 412 buildings, average cost: $230,800
  • 2007: 329 buildings, average cost: $213,700
  • 2008: 104 buildings, average cost: $199,800
  • 2009: 61 buildings, average cost: $210,000

Number of permits per 10,000 residents

Average cost (in $1000s)

Presidential Elections Results

1996 2000 2004 2008 2012

1996 Presidential Elections Results

2000 Presidential Elections Results

2004 Presidential Elections Results

2008 Presidential Elections Results

2012 Presidential Elections Results


Graphs represent county-level data. Detailed 2008 Election Results

Median real estate property taxes paid for housing units with mortgages in 2013: $1,452 (0.6%)
Median real estate property taxes paid for housing units with no mortgage in 2013: $1,477 (0.6%)

Orange County household income distribution in 2009 Orange County home values distribution Orange County contract rent distribution in 2009
Percentage of residents living in poverty in 2013: 12.8%
(12.4% for White Non-Hispanic residents, 20.6% for Black residents, 10.7% for Hispanic or Latino residents, 18.2% for American Indian residents, 13.2% for other race residents, 22.9% for two or more races residents)

Percentage of residents living in poverty in 2013: 12.9%
Orange County:

12.9%
Virginia:

11.7%
(12.4% for White Non-Hispanic residents, 22.1% for Black residents, 10.0% for Hispanic or Latino residents, 15.0% for American Indian residents, 14.2% for other race residents, 21.3% for two or more races residents)

Median age of residents in 2013: 43 years old
(Males: 42 years old, Females: 45 years old)
(Median age for: White residents: 45 years old, Black residents: 44 years old, American Indian residents: 52 years old, Asian residents: 41 years old, Hispanic or Latino residents: 30 years old, Other race residents: 37 years old)

Fair market rent in 2006 for a 1-bedroom apartment in Orange County is $533 a month.
Fair market rent for a 2-bedroom apartment is $593 a month.
Fair market rent for a 3-bedroom apartment is $863 a month.

Cities in this county include: Lake of the Woods, Orange, Gordonsville.

Orange County has a predicted average indoor radon screening level greater than 4 pCi/L (pico curies per liter) - Highest Potential

Click to draw/clear Orange County borders

Notable locations in this county outside city limits:

Notable locations in Orange County: Barbour Ruins (A), Richards Shop (B), Wilderness Battlefield (C), Battlefield Farms (D), Locust Grove (E), Mallory Ford (F), Pierces Shop (G), Sleets Shop (H), Barboursville Winery (I), Saint Just (J), Barboursville Plantation (K), Orange County Rescue Squad Battlefield Garage (L), Orange County Sheriff's Office (M), Goochland County Fire and Rescue Fife Company Number 4 (N), Montpelier (O), Enchanted Castle (P), Mine Run Volunteer Fire Department Company Number 21 (Q), Barboursville Volunteer Fire Department Company Number 25 (R), Orange County Rescue Squad Station Number 21 (S). Display/hide their locations on the map

Churches in Orange County include: Antioch Church (A), Bethel Church (B), Saint Marys Church (C), Salem Church (D), Shady Grove Church (E), Calvary Church (F), Zion Church (G), Zoar Church (H), Chestnut Grove Church (I). Display/hide their locations on the map

Cemeteries: West View Cemetery (1), Woodbury Cemetery (2), Emmanuel Cemetery (3), Graham Cemetery (4), Kemper Cemetery (5), Zoar Cemetery (6), Willis Cemetery (7). Display/hide their locations on the map

Reservoirs: Burrus Lake (A), Linden Pond (B), J E Taylor Lake (C), Neals Pond (D), Taylors Pond (E), House Lake (F), Lake Orange (G). Display/hide their locations on the map

Streams, rivers, and creeks: Robinson River (A), Walkers Branch (B), Tomahawk Creek (C), Sumerduck Run (D), Soapstone Branch (E), Shotgun Hill Branch (F), Russell Run (G), Rocky Run (H), Rocky Branch (I). Display/hide their locations on the map

Park in Orange County: Madison-Barbour Rural Historic District (1). Display/hide its location on the map

Neighboring counties: Albemarle County , Culpeper County , Greene County , Louisa County , Madison County , Spotsylvania County .

Unemployment in July 2013:
Here:

5.4%
Virginia:

5.4%

Unemployment by year (%)

County total employment by year

County average yearly wages by year ($)

Current college students: 720
People 25 years of age or older with a high school degree or higher: 75.2%
People 25 years of age or older with a bachelor's degree or higher: 18.5%

Number of foreign born residents: 480 (45% naturalized citizens)

Orange County:

1.9%
Whole state:

8.1%

Year of entry for the foreign-born population

  • 1995 to March 2000: 110
  • 1990 to 1994: 24
  • 1985 to 1989: 15
  • 1980 to 1984: 84
  • 1975 to 1979: 47
  • 1970 to 1974: 27
  • 1970 to 1974: 51
  • 1965 to 1969: 122

Mean travel time to work (commute): 33.1 minutes

Percentage of county residents living and working in this county: 44.7%

Orange County marital status for males Orange County marital status for females

Housing units in structures:


Housing units in Orange County with a mortgage: 3,942 (417 second mortgage, 474 home equity loan, 10 both second mortgage and home equity loan)
Houses without a mortgage: 2,204

Here:

0.0% with mortgage
State:

75.1% with mortgage

Religion statistics for Orange County

ReligionAdherentsCongregations
Evangelical Protestant8,99839
Mainline Protestant2,15212
Catholic5131
Black Protestant2421
Other423
None21,534-
Orange County Religion Details
Source: Clifford Grammich, Kirk Hadaway, Richard Houseal, Dale E.Jones, Alexei Krindatch, Richie Stanley and Richard H.Taylor. 2012. 2010 U.S.Religion Census: Religious Congregations & Membership Study. Association of Statisticians of American Religious Bodies. Jones, Dale E., et al. 2002. Congregations and Membership in the United States 2000. Nashville, TN: Glenmary Research Center.

Food Environment Statistics:

Number of grocery stores: 4
Orange County:

1.24 / 10,000 pop.
State:

2.03 / 10,000 pop.


Number of convenience stores (no gas): 4
This county:

1.24 / 10,000 pop.
Virginia:

1.43 / 10,000 pop.

Number of convenience stores (with gas): 16
Orange County:

4.95 / 10,000 pop.
Virginia:

4.03 / 10,000 pop.

Number of full-service restaurants: 19
This county:

5.88 / 10,000 pop.
State:

7.65 / 10,000 pop.

Adult diabetes rate:
Orange County:

9.6%
Virginia:

9.3%

Adult obesity rate:
Orange County:

26.6%
State:

26.7%

Low-income preschool obesity rate:
Here:

16.6%
State:

18.6%

Agriculture in Orange County:

Average size of farms: 216 acres
Average value of agricultural products sold per farm: $75,693
Average value of crops sold per acre for harvested cropland: $567.00
The value of livestock, poultry, and their products as a percentage of the total market value of agricultural products sold: 47.69%
Average total farm production expenses per farm: $72,067
Harvested cropland as a percentage of land in farms: 32.36%
Irrigated harvested cropland as a percentage of land in farms: 4.52%
Average market value of all machinery and equipment per farm: $52,261
The percentage of farms operated by a family or individual: 85.39%
Average age of principal farm operators: 57 years
Average number of cattle and calves per 100 acres of all land in farms: 22.63
Milk cows as a percentage of all cattle and calves: 7.02%
Corn for grain: 5237 harvested acres
All wheat for grain: 739 harvested acres
Soybeans for beans: 3717 harvested acres
Vegetables: 47 harvested acres
Land in orchards: 293 acres

Tornado activity:

Orange County historical area-adjusted tornado activity is significantly below Virginia state average. It is 2429289.5 times below overall U.S. average.
Tornadoes in this county have caused 2 injuries recorded between 1950 and 2004.
On 7/19/1977, a tornado injured one person and caused between $5000 and $50,000 in damages.

Earthquake activity:

Orange County-area historical earthquake activity is near Virginia state average. It is 84% smaller than the overall U.S. average.

On 12/9/2003 at 20:59:14, a magnitude 4.5 (4.5 MB, 4.5 LG, Depth: 3.1 mi, Class: Light, Intensity: IV - V) earthquake occurred 46.0 miles away from Orange County center
On 9/25/1998 at 19:52:52, a magnitude 5.2 (4.8 MB, 4.3 MS, 5.2 LG, 4.5 MW, Depth: 3.1 mi, Class: Moderate, Intensity: VI - VII) earthquake occurred 256.8 miles away from the county center
On 5/5/2003 at 16:32:32, a magnitude 3.9 (3.9 LG, Depth: 3.1 mi, Class: Light, Intensity: II - III) earthquake occurred 33.7 miles away from the county center
On 1/16/1994 at 01:49:16, a magnitude 4.6 (4.6 MB, 4.6 LG, Depth: 3.1 mi) earthquake occurred 180.3 miles away from the county center
On 3/15/1991 at 06:54:08, a magnitude 3.8 (3.8 LG, Depth: 10.9 mi) earthquake occurred 35.1 miles away from Orange County center
On 7/27/1980 at 18:52:21, a magnitude 5.2 (5.1 MB, 4.7 MS, 5.0 UK, 5.2 UK) earthquake occurred 320.0 miles away from the county center
Magnitude types: regional Lg-wave magnitude (LG), body-wave magnitude (MB), surface-wave magnitude (MS), moment magnitude (MW)

Most recent natural disasters:


The number of natural disasters in Orange County (13) is near the US average (12).
Major Disasters (Presidential) Declared: 10
Emergencies Declared: 3

Causes of natural disasters: Winter Storms: 5, Hurricanes: 3, Storms: 3, Floods: 2, Snowstorms: 2, Blizzard: 1, Drought: 1, Ice Storm: 1, Tropical Storm: 1 (Note: Some incidents may be assigned to more than one category).

Class of Workers

Most common industries in 2013 (%)
Males Females
Most common occupations in 2013 (%)
Males Females

Most common places of birth for the foreign-born residents (%):

  • Germany (22%)
  • United Kingdom (9%)
  • Mexico (9%)
  • Canada (6%)
  • Russia (5%)
  • Japan (4%)
  • Austria (4%)

Most common first ancestries reported in Orange County (%):

  • United States or American (26%)
  • English (13%)
  • German (11%)
  • Irish (8%)
  • Italian (4%)
  • Scotch-Irish (2%)
  • Scottish (2%)

Orange County mode of transportation to work chart

Means of transportation to work:

  • Drove a car alone: 9,377 (79%)
  • Carpooled: 1,737 (15%)
  • Bus or trolley bus: 59 (0%)
  • Subway or elevated: 12 (0%)
  • Taxi: 5 (0%)
  • Motorcycle: 6 (0%)
  • Bicycle: 16 (0%)
  • Walked: 293 (2%)
  • Other means: 39 (0%)
  • Worked at home: 391 (3%)

Owners and renters by unit type in %

Breakdown of mean house values by ages of householders


People in group quarters in Orange County, Virginia in 2000:

  • 236 people in local jails and other confinement facilities (including police lockups)
  • 199 people in nursing homes
  • 44 people in other noninstitutional group quarters
  • 8 people in homes for the mentally retarded

People in group quarters in Orange County, Virginia in 2010:

  • 379 people in local jails and other municipal confinement facilities
  • 179 people in nursing facilities/skilled-nursing facilities
  • 26 people in emergency and transitional shelters (with sleeping facilities) for people experiencing homelessness
  • 13 people in workers' group living quarters and job corps centers
  • 4 people in group homes intended for adults
Average gross adjusted income of non-migrant taxpayers in this county in 2010 was $57,256.

8.36% of this county's 2011 resident taxpayers lived in other counties in 2010 ($48,059 average adjusted gross income)

Here:

8.36%
Virginia average:

9.34%


10 or fewer of this county's residents moved from foreign countries.
6.44% relocated from other counties in Virginia ($37,445 average AGI)
1.92% relocated from other states ($10,615 average AGI)
Orange County:

1.92%
Virginia average:

3.74%

Percentage of residents relocating from other counties or countries


Top counties from which taxpayers relocated into this county between 2010 and 2011:
from Spotsylvania County, VA  1.41% ($59,536 average AGI)
from Culpeper County, VA  0.75% ($33,082)
from Fairfax County, VA  0.42% ($97,611)
from Stafford County, VA  0.40% ($44,788)
from Louisa County, VA  0.36% ($33,404)
from Madison County, VA  0.36% ($33,660)
from Albemarle County, VA  0.36% ($47,326)


7.66% of this county's 2010 resident taxpayers moved to other counties in 2011 ($43,553 average adjusted gross income)

Here:

7.66%
Virginia average:

9.20%


10 or fewer of this county's residents moved to foreign countries.
5.68% relocated to other counties in Virginia ($31,489 average AGI)
1.97% relocated to other states ($12,064 average AGI)
Orange County:

1.97%
Virginia average:

3.60%

Percentage of residents relocating to other counties or countries


Top counties to which taxpayers relocated from this county between 2010 and 2011:
to Spotsylvania County, VA  1.14% ($39,293 average AGI)
to Culpeper County, VA  0.62% ($34,713)
to Albemarle County, VA  0.42% ($55,611)
to Stafford County, VA  0.42% ($40,111)
to Fredericksburg city, VA  0.35% ($42,044)
to Louisa County, VA  0.30% ($32,132)
to Fairfax County, VA  0.25% ($58,813)

Births per 1000 population from 1990 to 1999: 12.5
Births per 1000 population from 2000 to 2006: 11.9

Births per 1000 population in Orange County

Deaths per 1000 population from 1990 to 1999: 10.6
Deaths per 1000 population from 2000 to 2006: 10.6
Deaths per 1000 population from 2007 to 2013: 9.5

Deaths per 1000 population in Orange County

Infant deaths per 1000 live births from 1990 to 1999: 8.8
Infant deaths per 1000 live births from 2000 to 2006: 6.3

Infant deaths per 1000 live births in Orange County

Persons enrolled in hospital insurance and/or supplemental medical insurance (Medicare) in July 1, 2003: 6,066 (5,341 aged, 725 disabled)
Population without health insurance coverage in 2000: 10%
Children under 18 without health insurance coverage in 2000: 8%

General practice office based MDs per 100,000 population in 2005: 1057.990
Medical specialist MDs per 100,000 population in 2005: 819.940
Dentists per 100,000 population in 1998: 9.92

Total births per 100,000 population, July 2005 - July 2006 : 19.68
Total deaths per 100,000 population, July 2005 - July 2006: 92.57

Limited-service eating places per 100,000 population in 2005 : 13.22

Suicides per 1,000,000 population from 2000 to 2006: 131.5. This is more than state average.

Household type by relationship:

Households: 32,880

Size of family households: 4,433 2-persons, 2,014 3-persons, 1,664 4-persons, 745 5-persons, 311 6-persons, 175 7-or-more-persons.

Size of nonfamily households: 2,905 1-person, 550 2-persons, 60 3-persons, 22 4-persons, 9 5-persons, 3 6-persons, 4 7-or-more-persons.

3,999 married couples with children.
1,276 single-parent households (373 men, 903 women).

96.9% of residents of Orange County speak English at home.
1.6% of residents speak Spanish at home (55% speak English very well, 24% speak English well, 21% speak English not well).
1.4% of residents speak other Indo-European language at home (87% speak English very well, 13% speak English well).
0.1% of residents speak Asian or Pacific Island language at home (72% speak English very well, 25% speak English well, 3% speak English not well).

In fiscal year 2004:

Federal Government expenditure: $181,916,000 ($6279 per capita)
Department of Defense expenditure: $15,806,000
Federal direct payments to individuals for retirement and disability: $120,777,000
Federal other direct payments to individuals: $33,685,000
Federal direct payments not to individuals: $673,000
Federal grants: $21,360,000
Federal procurement contracts: $1,477,000 ($434,000 Department of Defense)
Federal salaries and wages: $3,944,000 ($0,000 Department of Defense)
Federal Government direct loans: $1,685,000
Federal guaranteed/insured loans: $18,550,000
Federal Government insurance: $8,839,000

Population change from April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2005:

Births: 1,628
Here:

54 per 1000 residents
State:

70 per 1000 residents

Deaths: 1,589
Here:

53 per 1000 residents
State:

40 per 1000 residents

Net international migration: +91
Here:

+3 per 1000 residents
State:

+18 per 1000 residents

Net internal migration: +4,295
Here:

+142 per 1000 residents
State:

+14 per 1000 residents

Population growth in Orange County

Total withdrawal of fresh water for public supply: 0.45 millions of gallons per day (4% from ground, 96% from surface)

Median number of rooms in houses and condos:
Here:

6.2
State:

6.6

Median number of rooms in apartments:
Here:

4.9
State:

4.3

Year house built

  • 2005 or later: 218
  • 2000 to 2004: 3,367
  • 1990 to 1999: 3,229
  • 1980 to 1989: 2,204
  • 1970 to 1979: 2,157
  • 1960 to 1969: 952
  • 1950 to 1959: 871
  • 1940 to 1949: 410
  • 1939 or earlier: 1,393
Rooms in houses/apartments in Orange County, Virginia
Owner-occupied Renter-occupied
  • 1 room: 7
  • 2 rooms: 29
  • 3 rooms: 157
  • 4 rooms: 588
  • 5 rooms: 1,623
  • 6 rooms: 2,142
  • 7 rooms: 1,186
  • 8 rooms: 1,160
  • 9+ rooms: 933
  • 1 room: 8
  • 2 rooms: 87
  • 3 rooms: 246
  • 4 rooms: 510
  • 5 rooms: 706
  • 6 rooms: 385
  • 7 rooms: 178
  • 8 rooms: 93
  • 9+ rooms: 112
Bedrooms in houses/apartments in Orange County, Virginia
Owner-occupied Renter-occupied
  • no bedroom: 7
  • 1 bedroom: 198
  • 2 bedrooms: 1,331
  • 3 bedrooms: 4,541
  • 4 bedrooms: 1,347
  • 5+ bedrooms: 401
  • no bedroom: 15
  • 1 bedroom: 320
  • 2 bedrooms: 853
  • 3 bedrooms: 908
  • 4 bedrooms: 196
  • 5+ bedrooms: 33
Cars and other vehicles available in Orange County, Virginia in houses/condos/apartments
Owner-occupied Renter-occupied
  • no vehicle: 275
  • 1 vehicle: 2,105
  • 2 vehicles: 3,160
  • 3 vehicles: 1,609
  • 4 vehicles: 418
  • 5+ vehicles: 258
  • no vehicle: 273
  • 1 vehicle: 951
  • 2 vehicles: 760
  • 3 vehicles: 272
  • 4 vehicles: 42
  • 5+ vehicles: 27

59% of Orange County residents lived in the same house 5 years ago.
   Out of people who lived in different houses, 40% lived in this county.
   Out of people who lived in different counties, 75% lived in Virginia.

Orange County:

58.5%
State average:

53.8%

Place of birth for U.S.-born residents:

Median price asked for vacant for-sale houses in 2000: $117,100


Housing units lacking complete plumbing facilities: 1%

Housing units lacking complete kitchen facilities: 1%

Year Householders Moved Into Unit

Most commonly used house heating fuel in Orange County
Houses and condos Apartments
  • Electricity (49.6%)
  • Fuel oil, kerosene, etc. (27.8%)
  • Bottled, tank, or LP gas (14.2%)
  • Wood (6.6%)
  • Utility gas (1.1%)
  • Electricity (50.4%)
  • Fuel oil, kerosene, etc. (32.1%)
  • Bottled, tank, or LP gas (9.5%)
  • Wood (5.4%)
  • Utility gas (1.2%)
  • Other fuel (0.7%)

Private vs. public school enrollment:


Students in private schools in grades 1 to 8 (elementary and middle school): 212
Here:

7.6%
Virginia:

9.5%

Students in private schools in grades 9 to 12 (high school): 164
Here:

11.6%
Virginia:

8.2%

Students in private undergraduate colleges: 93
Here:

17.4%
Virginia:

20.6%

Educational Attainment (%)

School Enrollment by Level of School (%)

Age and Sex of Sensory-Disabled Residents (Noninstitutionalized)

Age and Sex of Physically-Disabled Residents (Noninstitutionalized)

Age and Sex of Mentally-Disabled Residents (Noninstitutionalized)

Age and Sex of Self-Care Disabled Residents (Noninstitutionalized)

Age and Sex of Go-Outside-Home Disabled Residents (Noninstitutionalized)

Age and Sex of Residents with Employment Disability (Noninstitutionalized)

Supplemental Security Income (SSI) in 2006:

Orange County Fatal accident statistics for 1975 - 1993
Count Vehicles DUI Fatalities Persons

Fatal accident count (per 100,000 population)

Orange County Fatal accident statistics for 1994 - 2013
Count Vehicles DUI Fatalities Persons Pedestrians

Fatal accident count (per 100,000 population)

Most common first names in Orange County, VA among deceased individuals
NameCountLived (average)
William18272.3 years
James16070.9 years
Mary14779.6 years
John12775.4 years
Robert12371.1 years
George9274.7 years
Charles7871.6 years
Thomas5871.6 years
Joseph5473.6 years
Henry5276.9 years
Most common last names in Orange County, VA among deceased individuals
Last nameCountLived (average)
Smith9675.2 years
Johnson8075.3 years
Morris5875.7 years
Williams4978.3 years
Brown4875.6 years
Miller4575.5 years
Carter3772.0 years
Jones3674.6 years
Davis3676.2 years
Ellis3471.4 years
Businesses in Orange County, VA
NameCountNameCount
7-Eleven3La-Z-Boy1
AT&T2Lane Furniture1
Advance Auto Parts2Long John Silver's1
Best Western1Lowe's1
Burger King3MasterBrand Cabinets8
CVS2McDonald's3
Chevrolet1Nike1
Domino's Pizza1Pizza Hut1
Dunkin Donuts1Subaru1
FedEx6Subway4
H&R Block1True Value2
Hardee's2U-Haul1
Holiday Inn1UPS3
IHOP1Walmart1
KFC1

Orange County on our top lists: