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View Poll Results: Is raced discussed in The Americas 24/7
Yes, Latin Americas think about race all the time 1 33.33%
No, this board has been invaded by race extremists. 2 66.67%
Voters: 3. You may not vote on this poll

 
 
Old 11-18-2011, 11:00 AM
 
Location: Fortaleza, Brazil
2,564 posts, read 4,652,276 times
Reputation: 1562

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Hi people.

I just found a very interesting study on the mitochondrial DNA of the Brazilian people.

For those who don't know what is mitochondrial DNA, some information from Wikipedia:


"Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria, structures within eukaryotic cells that convert the chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

Mitochondrial DNA can be regarded as the smallest chromosome, and was the first significant part of the human genome to be sequenced. In most species, including humans, mtDNA is inherited solely from the mother."

Source: Mitochondrial DNA - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



That means that your mitochondrial DNA comes from the mother of the mother of the mother of your mother.


More information from Wikipedia:

"In human genetics, a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by differences in human mitochondrial DNA. Haplogroups are used to represent the major branch points on the mitochondrial phylogenetic tree. Understanding the evolutionary path of the female lineage has helped population geneticists trace the matrilineal inheritance of modern humans back to human origins in Africa and the subsequent spread across the globe.

The letter names of the haplogroups run from A to Z. As haplogroups were named in the order of their discovery, they do not reflect the actual genetic relationships."

Source: Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



Well... Scientists identified "haplogroups" of mitochondrial DNA that are typical of each continent.

There are haplogroups that are typical of Europe, others that are typical of Africa, others that are typical of Native Americans, etcetera.




I found this very interesting study about the mitochondrial DNA of the Brazilian people:

The Ancestry of Brazilian mtDNA Lineages


The study is named "The Ancestry of Brazilian mtDNA Lineages".


The most interesting conclusion of the study is summarized in this table:

PubMed Central, Table 4: Am J Hum Genet. 2000 August; 67(2): 444

The table shows the "Frequency of Continent-Specific mtDNA Haplotypes in the Brazilian mtDNA Pool".


As you should know, Brazil is a multi-racial country. And this genetic study confirms that.

The table shows that 39 percent of Brazilians have mitochondrial DNA of European origin, 33 percent of Brazilians have mitochondrial DNA of Native American origin, and 28 percent of Brazilians have mitochondrial DNA of African origin.


That distribution changes from a region of Brazil to another.

For example, in the Northeast, the Southeast and the South, the numbers are:


Northeast


European - 34 percent

Native American - 22 percent

African - 44 percent




Southeast (includes Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo)


European - 31 percent

Native American - 33 percent

African - 34 percent




South



European - 66 percent

Native American - 22 percent

African - 12 percent



This genetic study confirms how Brazil is a multi-racial country.

 
Old 11-18-2011, 11:04 AM
 
Location: Macao
15,945 posts, read 36,154,437 times
Reputation: 9478
Interesting!

How do they define the Northeast? I'd think Recife up to Manaus. But it looks like they include Salvador as well? I didn't think African had that much influence north of Salvador until you hit Sao Luis. But, from this study, 44% have some African blood.

I'm equally surprised that Rio/Sao Paulo has more indigeneous blood than the Northeast?????!!!??
 
Old 11-18-2011, 11:13 AM
 
Location: Fortaleza, Brazil
2,564 posts, read 4,652,276 times
Reputation: 1562
Quote:
Originally Posted by Tiger Beer View Post
Interesting!

How do they define the Northeast? I'd think Recife up to Manaus. But it looks like they include Salvador as well? I didn't think African had that much influence north of Salvador until you hit Sao Luis. But, from this study, 44% have some African blood.

I'm equally surprised that Rio/Sao Paulo has more indigeneous blood than the Northeast?????!!!??


The Northeast is officially defined as the 9 states from Maranhao (capital city: Sao Luis) until Bahia (capital city: Salvador).

Manaus and Belem are not part of the Northeast. Manaus and Belem are part of another region officialy designated as "North".

The numbers for the North are:

Native American - 54 percent

European - 31 percent

African - 15 percent


The North is where the Amazon forest is located, and the population there is strongly Amerindian (indigenous).




And I'm also surprised that the Southeast has more indigeneous blood than the Northeast, but it's what the research shows. The Southeast includes not only Rio/Sao Paulo but also the state of Minas Gerais (capital city: Belo Horizonte), the state with the second largest population in Brazil after the state of Sao Paulo.
 
Old 11-18-2011, 11:26 AM
Status: "Then everything change forever..." (set 13 days ago)
 
5,173 posts, read 8,025,013 times
Reputation: 4269
Mitochondrial DNA is only part of the puzzle, they now need to do a study on the paternal lines to get the full picture. Having said that, in the Latin American countries where paternal DNA studies have been done, the European component tends to predominate. I don't really expect much difference in Brazil.
 
Old 11-18-2011, 11:28 AM
 
Location: Fortaleza, Brazil
2,564 posts, read 4,652,276 times
Reputation: 1562
The 44% of African ancestry in the Northeast is heavily concentrated in the metropolitan regions of the cities of Salvador, Recife and Sao Luis, that had many sugar cane plantations in the proximities, during the colonial era.

In other states of the Northeast Region, like Ceara and Piaui, the Native American ancestry is clearly much more widespread than the African ancestry.
 
Old 11-18-2011, 03:52 PM
 
Location: American Expat
2,189 posts, read 4,714,600 times
Reputation: 1875
Default lol. Spilled the coffee all over my screen...

Quote:
Originally Posted by MalaMan View Post
Hi people.

I just found a very interesting study on the mitochondrial DNA of the Brazilian people.

For those who don't know what is mitochondrial DNA, some information from Wikipedia:


"Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria, structures within eukaryotic cells that convert the chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

Mitochondrial DNA can be regarded as the smallest chromosome, and was the first significant part of the human genome to be sequenced. In most species, including humans, mtDNA is inherited solely from the mother."

Source: Mitochondrial DNA - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



That means that your mitochondrial DNA comes from the mother of the mother of the mother of your mother.


More information from Wikipedia:

"In human genetics, a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by differences in human mitochondrial DNA. Haplogroups are used to represent the major branch points on the mitochondrial phylogenetic tree. Understanding the evolutionary path of the female lineage has helped population geneticists trace the matrilineal inheritance of modern humans back to human origins in Africa and the subsequent spread across the globe.

The letter names of the haplogroups run from A to Z. As haplogroups were named in the order of their discovery, they do not reflect the actual genetic relationships."

Source: Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



Well... Scientists identified "haplogroups" of mitochondrial DNA that are typical of each continent.

There are haplogroups that are typical of Europe, others that are typical of Africa, others that are typical of Native Americans, etcetera.




I found this very interesting study about the mitochondrial DNA of the Brazilian people:

The Ancestry of Brazilian mtDNA Lineages


The study is named "The Ancestry of Brazilian mtDNA Lineages".


The most interesting conclusion of the study is summarized in this table:

PubMed Central, Table 4: Am J Hum Genet. 2000 August; 67(2): 444

The table shows the "Frequency of Continent-Specific mtDNA Haplotypes in the Brazilian mtDNA Pool".


As you should know, Brazil is a multi-racial country. And this genetic study confirms that.

The table shows that 39 percent of Brazilians have mitochondrial DNA of European origin, 33 percent of Brazilians have mitochondrial DNA of Native American origin, and 28 percent of Brazilians have mitochondrial DNA of African origin.


That distribution changes from a region of Brazil to another.

For example, in the Northeast, the Southeast and the South, the numbers are:


Northeast


European - 34 percent

Native American - 22 percent

African - 44 percent




Southeast (includes Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo)


European - 31 percent

Native American - 33 percent

African - 34 percent




South



European - 66 percent

Native American - 22 percent

African - 12 percent



This genetic study confirms how Brazil is a multi-racial country.
Your definition of multiracial is now based on mitochondrial DNA? Are you for real? On top of that, mtDNA is also only inherited from the mother.
 
Old 11-18-2011, 05:03 PM
 
Location: 30-40N 90-100W
13,856 posts, read 22,961,646 times
Reputation: 6679
"The table shows that 39 percent of Brazilians have mitochondrial DNA of European origin, 33 percent of Brazilians have mitochondrial DNA of Native American origin, and 28 percent of Brazilians have mitochondrial DNA of African origin."

I'm a little surprised Native American is above African. As the South looks to be the only region to have noticeably more Native American I take it they have a large percent of the population.

Relational to the above, if maybe linked to elsewhere, is this.

Brazil's Population Is Now Majority Minority - Jobs & Economy - The Atlantic Cities
 
Old 11-18-2011, 06:03 PM
 
Location: In the heights
22,131 posts, read 23,648,900 times
Reputation: 11616
Quote:
Originally Posted by Thomas R. View Post
"The table shows that 39 percent of Brazilians have mitochondrial DNA of European origin, 33 percent of Brazilians have mitochondrial DNA of Native American origin, and 28 percent of Brazilians have mitochondrial DNA of African origin."

I'm a little surprised Native American is above African. As the South looks to be the only region to have noticeably more Native American I take it they have a large percent of the population.

Relational to the above, if maybe linked to elsewhere, is this.

Brazil's Population Is Now Majority Minority - Jobs & Economy - The Atlantic Cities
mtDNA is from the maternal line only--the majority of the Europeans that came, especially early on, were male. The same is true of the African slaves they brought. Many of these European and African males had children with Native American woman due to the relative scarcity of European and African females.
 
Old 11-18-2011, 07:06 PM
 
Location: Macao
15,945 posts, read 36,154,437 times
Reputation: 9478
Quote:
Originally Posted by MalaMan View Post
The Northeast is officially defined as the 9 states from Maranhao (capital city: Sao Luis) until Bahia (capital city: Salvador).

Manaus and Belem are not part of the Northeast. Manaus and Belem are part of another region officialy designated as "North".

The numbers for the North are:

Native American - 54 percent

European - 31 percent

African - 15 percent


The North is where the Amazon forest is located, and the population there is strongly Amerindian (indigenous).




And I'm also surprised that the Southeast has more indigeneous blood than the Northeast, but it's what the research shows. The Southeast includes not only Rio/Sao Paulo but also the state of Minas Gerais (capital city: Belo Horizonte), the state with the second largest population in Brazil after the state of Sao Paulo.
Are there some similar stats/data for each individual large city, or for each estados/state?

Very interesting! I've always been curious about individual Northeast and Northern cities, just because they seem to vary so significantly from each other.
 
Old 11-18-2011, 09:07 PM
 
Location: 30-40N 90-100W
13,856 posts, read 22,961,646 times
Reputation: 6679
Quote:
Originally Posted by OyCrumbler View Post
mtDNA is from the maternal line only--the majority of the Europeans that came, especially early on, were male. The same is true of the African slaves they brought. Many of these European and African males had children with Native American woman due to the relative scarcity of European and African females.
That makes sense, I should have thought of that.
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