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Old 12-09-2017, 06:12 AM
 
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By adding in wider European genetic data, the researchers modeled their genetic influence on Irish and British populations. For the seven Gaelic Irish population clusters, Gilbert and his colleagues found genetic influences from French, Belgian, Danish, and Norwegian populations. They traced the French genetic influence to a northwestern French population that had previously been linked to other Celtic populations, including in Scotland, Wales, and Cornwall.

The researchers also uncovered a high level of Norwegian-like ancestry among their Irish clusters as well as in some of their British clusters. They attributed this Norwegian-like ancestry to coastal parts of Norway, including regions where Norse Vikings were active. Globetrotter modeling further timed this Norwegian genetic influence to about the time that Vikings were active.

https://www.genomeweb.com/genetic-re...torical-events

The extent of population structure within Ireland is largely unknown, as is the impact of historical migrations. Here we illustrate fine-scale genetic structure across Ireland that follows geographic boundaries and present evidence of admixture events into Ireland. Utilising the ‘Irish DNA Atlas’, a cohort (n = 194) of Irish individuals with four generations of ancestry linked to specific regions in Ireland, in combination with 2,039 individuals from the Peoples of the British Isles dataset, we show that the Irish population can be divided in 10 distinct geographically stratified genetic clusters; seven of ‘Gaelic’ Irish ancestry, and three of shared Irish-British ancestry. In addition we observe a major genetic barrier to the north of Ireland in Ulster. Using a reference of 6,760 European individuals and two ancient Irish genomes, we demonstrate high levels of North-West French-like and West Norwegian-like ancestry within Ireland. We show that that our ‘Gaelic’ Irish clusters present homogenous levels of ancient Irish ancestries. We additionally detect admixture events that provide evidence of Norse-Viking gene flow into Ireland, and reflect the Ulster Plantations. Our work informs both on Irish history, as well as the study of Mendelian and complex disease genetics involving populations of Irish ancestry.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-17124-4

Previous studies of the genetic landscape of Ireland have suggested homogeneity, with population substructure undetectable using single-marker methods. Here we have harnessed the haplotype-based method fineSTRUCTURE in an Irish genome-wide SNP dataset, identifying 23 discrete genetic clusters which segregate with geographical provenance. Cluster diversity is pronounced in the west of Ireland but reduced in the east where older structure has been eroded by historical migrations. Accordingly, when populations from the neighbouring island of Britain are included, a west-east cline of CelticBritish ancestry is revealed along with a particularly striking correlation between haplotypes and geography across both islands. A strong relationship is revealed between subsets of Northern Irish and Scottish populations, where discordant genetic and geographic affinities reflect major migrations in recent centuries.
Additionally, Irish genetic proximity of all Scottish samples likely reflects older strata of communication across the narrowest inter-island crossing. Using GLOBETROTTER we detected Irish admixture signals from Britain and Europe and estimated dates for events consistent with the historical migrations of the NorseVikings, the Anglo-Normans and the British Plantations. The influence of the former is greater than previously estimated from Y chromosome haplotypes. In all, we paint a new picture of the genetic landscape of Ireland, revealing structure which should be considered in the design of studies examining rare genetic variation and its association with traits.

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/bior...30797.full.pdf
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Old 12-09-2017, 08:02 AM
 
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The Celtic and Viking influence was also evident in the findings with relatively high levels of North-West French-like and evidence of West Norwegian-like ancestry identified.

https://www.rte.ie/news/2017/1208/92...out-ancestors/
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Old 12-09-2017, 10:17 AM
 
Location: New Mexico
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Interesting new information...These are old "paleo" genetic connections that might leave traces on the modern genome. The Irish are not "French" although they have French-like (shared) Celtic genetics. That seems like a base archaic Irish population with later significant additions of Viking/Norse and then a more recent Scottish (Ulster) and English (Norman/Belgian?) influx.

I've not read this report in detail yet but there are a number of references in the old Irish chronicles and tales of people going back and forth to Scotland. My McSweeney "clan" is one that seems to pop up on both sides of the Irish Sea. The Viking contribution in Ireland seem mostly Norwegian while the Danish had a bigger contribution in England and Scotland. The amount of Norse/Viking influence was something of a surprise -- more than I figured.
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Old 12-09-2017, 10:30 AM
 
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Quote:
Originally Posted by SunGrins View Post
Interesting new information...These are old "paleo" genetic connections that might leave traces on the modern genome. The Irish are not "French" although they have French-like (shared) Celtic genetics. That seems like a base archaic Irish population with later significant additions of Viking/Norse and then a more recent Scottish (Ulster) and English (Norman/Belgian?) influx.

I've not read this report in detail yet but there are a number of references in the old Irish chronicles and tales of people going back and forth to Scotland. My McSweeney "clan" is one that seems to pop up on both sides of the Irish Sea. The Viking contribution in Ireland seem mostly Norwegian while the Danish had a bigger contribution in England and Scotland. The amount of Norse/Viking influence was something of a surprise -- more than I figured.
McSweeney is a Gallowglass name. Yes the "French like" ancestry is shared Celtic genetics. I think the people that did the report mentioned that they were surprised at the Norse/Viking influence. No one expected it to be so high.
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Old 12-09-2017, 04:25 PM
 
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Interesting !
My Y-DNA is: R1b1b2a1a2f*
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Old 12-09-2017, 07:21 PM
 
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Originally Posted by ozarknation View Post
Interesting !
My Y-DNA is: R1b1b2a1a2f*

Members of this cluster share a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker at M222. The subclade is formally known as R1b1b2a1a2f2 and is especially associated with Scottish and Irish populations. It is likely to have entered Scotland through the Dalriadic migrations of the 6th to 8th Centuries A.D.
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Old 12-09-2017, 07:43 PM
 
Location: New Mexico
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Originally Posted by Bernie20 View Post
McSweeney is a Gallowglass name.
Yes— supposedly originated in Ireland then went to Scotland until being sent packing back to Ireland after Bannockburn and were then left landless. They became mercenaries until they gained some land holdings once again. Their genes are in both Ireland and Scotland.
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Old 12-09-2017, 08:04 PM
 
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Just in case people don't know about the Gallowglass (also spelt galloglass, gallowglas or galloglas; from Irish: gall óglaigh meaning foreign warriors) were a class of elite mercenary warriors who were principally members of the Norse-Gaelic clans of Scotland between the mid 13th century and late 16th century.

They were very good fighters and were employed by various Irish chiefs with many coming over to Ireland after being dispossessed of their lands after the Scottish Wars of Independence. They backed the wrong side.

https://www.yourirish.com/history/me.../gallowglasses

The Gallowglass 'Do You Belong To A Warrior Clan' | Irish Origenes: Use Family Tree DNA to Discover Your Genetic Origins | Clans of Ireland | Irish Surnames Map

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gallowglass
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Old 12-09-2017, 08:16 PM
 
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Originally Posted by brownbagg View Post
Members of this cluster share a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker at M222. The subclade is formally known as R1b1b2a1a2f2 and is especially associated with Scottish and Irish populations. It is likely to have entered Scotland through the Dalriadic migrations of the 6th to 8th Centuries A.D.
R1b1b2a1a2f is L21 but R1b12a1a2f2 is M222. They aren't the same. L21 is much further up the tree than M222. L21 is very high in Northern France as well as Ireland which is interesting when you see the Irish DNA Atlas (IDA) says the Irish have high levels of ancestry from Northwestern France and Norway.

Northern France appears to be the origin of the Celtic populations of Britain and Ireland. Both in the IDA and the People of the British Isles (PoBI) the Celtic regions exhibit high levels of this Northern French category.

Most people need further ydna testing to find out which subclade they are under L21. 23andMe tests for both L21 and M222 so if you test at 23andMe you would know if you are one or the other.

23andMe now use the shortened form of L21 and M222 which avoids the confusion of using the more longer nomenclature.

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Old 12-09-2017, 09:25 PM
 
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Here is some relevant info from the study.

Quote:
We show that the Irish population can be divided in 10 distinct geographically stratified genetic clusters; seven of ‘Gaelic’ Irish ancestry, and three of shared Irish-British ancestry. In addition we observe a major genetic barrier to the north of Ireland in Ulster. Using a reference of 6,760 European individuals and two ancient Irish genomes, we demonstrate high levels of North-West French-like and West Norwegian-like ancestry within Ireland. We show that that our ‘Gaelic’ Irish clusters present homogenous levels of ancient Irish ancestries. We additionally detect admixture events that provide evidence of Norse-Viking gene flow into Ireland, and reflect the Ulster Plantations.
Quote:
A striking result of our admixture analysis is the surprising amount of Norwegian-like ancestry in our Irish clusters. We also detected high levels of Norwegian ancestry in Orcadian and Scottish clusters, and relatively low Norwegian ancestry in English and Welsh clusters. The Norwegian clusters that contribute significant ancestry to any Irish or British clusters predominantly consist of individuals from counties on the north or western coasts of Norway (Fig. 3b). These areas are noted to be regions where Norse Viking activity originated from.
Quote:
We report the total levels of ancestry proportions best represented by each group of European clusters grouped by broad country membership (Fig. 3a), and the ancestry proportions of the 19 individual European clusters that contribute at least 2.5% ancestry to any Irish or British cluster (Fig. 3b). The raw ancestry proportions are reported in Supplementary Table 5, and the 95% confidence intervals in Supplementary Table 6. For the seven ‘Gaelic’ Irish clusters, we observe that 80% of ancestry is best explained by clusters of French, Belgian, Danish, and Norwegian membership, with clusters from the other six reference European populations making up the remaining ~20% (Fig. 3a). French clusters are the best fit for about half of the ancestry within these Irish clusters, which is the highest proportion across all the Irish or British clusters. This French proportion is being driven primarily by the European cluster FRA1 which by itself represents an average of 30% ancestry in the ‘Gaelic’ Irish clusters (Fig. 3b). Cluster FRA1 is predominantly (80.0%) made up of individuals from the north-west region of France, an area with genetic affinity to other, British, ‘Celtic’ populations23. This pattern of French ancestry continues in other Irish and British clusters associated with Celtic ancestry; specifically the N Ireland, Scottish, Orcadian, Welsh, and Cornish clusters. The ‘Gaelic’ Irish clusters show the lowest ancestry proportions of German clusters, which in turn are thought to reflect Germanic/Saxon influence21. Orkney shows the second-least ‘Germanic’ proportion, with English clusters showing the most. We also observe a low amount of Belgian-like ancestry within Ireland, compared to groups within Britain, further illustrating Ireland’s relative isolation from mainland Europe.
Quote:
We identify a high level of France-like ancestry being driven by a single French cluster with high North-Western French membership. The North-West of France has previously been shown to have genetic links with Celtic populations in Britain23. Therefore the large signal we observe within Ireland could reflect Ireland as a ‘sink’ of Celtic ancestry, considering its isolation compared to other British Celtic groups. Considering the links from north-west France to other Celtic populations23, we do not interpret this as a ‘Norman’ signal. The ancestry profiles also consists of a surprising level of Norwegian related ancestry, especially considering previous attempts to detect ‘Norse Viking’ admixture into Ireland have been inconclusive14. Ireland presents the second highest amount of Norwegian ancestry in our analysis after Orkney, where Norse Viking admixture is a well-described feature21,33,34. All areas traditionally associated with Norse Viking activity (Ireland, Scotland, and Orkney) present relatively high levels of Norwegian-like ancestry. A ‘Norse Viking’ admixture event is further supported by our Globetrotter analysis, which detected significant admixture events into Ireland. This introduced a Norwegian/Scandinavian component corresponding with the time of historical Viking activity in Ireland. Furthermore, the Norwegian individuals that contribute this ancestry to Irish clusters are predominantly from areas in Norway where Norse Viking activity is known to originate from8,28. The effect of the Norse Vikings on the genetic landscape of Ireland seems to be shared across Ireland, and not limited to regions of Norse settlement, e.g. Limerick, Waterford, Wexford, and Dublin8. This suggests any structure that we are detecting in Ireland post-dates the introgression of this Norwegian-like ancestry. Alternatively the structure could be old and persistent, with a lack of strong genetic barriers resulting in a gradual homogenisation of Norse ancestry within modern Ireland. Whilst a proportion of the elevated Norwegian ancestry within Ireland could be due to Irish haplotypes in our modern Norwegian sample, our Globetrotter results suggest this is not the primary cause. This component could have been introduced by Vikings who were genetically Norwegian in ancestry, or individuals with mixed Scottish and Norwegian ancestry. If the latter is the case, this would explain our Globetrotter date estimates, which generally fall before the beginning of the Viking period in Ireland. Scottish haplotypes in the admixing source into Ireland would lower any admixture date estimate. This is likely, considering the low, but constant, level of gene flow expected across Ireland and Scotland prior to the Viking admixture. This hypothesis would also support the noisy and relatively shallow admixture signal we detect in the Globetrotter joint probability curves. A portion of this Norwegian-like ancestry could originate from a later, but smaller, admixture event due to Norman settlers into Ireland. However the Globetrotter date estimates disagree with this as the primary source of Norwegian admixture.
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