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Old 10-25-2014, 08:06 PM
 
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Quote:
Originally Posted by CARPATHIAN View Post
Yes.

As about your last but one reply, you said you saw in the first link in my message some stone walls, but couldn't read the article. The first link was the English page about Cucuteni Culture, so maybe you refered to the second link, a Romanian article about Cucuteni site?
Yeah, three appeared to be stone walls in that too:

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Old 10-26-2014, 02:57 AM
 
Location: Romania
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Now I see what you mean.


That stone structure is the tomb of a 5th century BCE Dacian ruler, which is built over the Neolithic settlement. Over this tomb was built in communist period a protective pavilion, which serves as a museum (the circular building that appears in first photo) and where are displayed both artefacts from Cucuteni Culture and from the Dacian tomb. In fact, this is called the Cucuteni Museum.

In the Dacian tomb was discovered a fine 5th century BCE gold helmet, that is now displayed at the National History Museum in Bucharest.

Here are more details and images about the archaeological site and the museum in Cucuteni village:

Cucuteni - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Old 10-26-2014, 07:54 AM
 
Location: NW Indiana
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Quote:
Originally Posted by CARPATHIAN View Post
Now I see what you mean.


That stone structure is the tomb of a 5th century BCE Dacian ruler, which is built over the Neolithic settlement. Over this tomb was built in communist period a protective pavilion, which serves as a museum (the circular building that appears in first photo) and where are displayed both artefacts from Cucuteni Culture and from the Dacian tomb. In fact, this is called the Cucuteni Museum.

In the Dacian tomb was discovered a fine 5th century BCE gold helmet, that is now displayed at the National History Museum in Bucharest.

Here are more details and images about the archaeological site and the museum in Cucuteni village:

Cucuteni - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Thanks for the link to the Cuceteni village. I just read the reference as well as following up on a number of references it suggested.

The early prehistory of the Romanian area is extremely interesting. I was surprised to learn that not only is some of the earliest copper smelting traced to this area, but the first known salt works is also from this area (Poiana Slatinei near the Romanian town of Lunca). Salt was desperately needed to cure meat and was probably more valuable than copper or gold to the early settlers in the area. According to the wikpedia links, there is evidence of a salt works there as early as 6050 BC.
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Old 10-26-2014, 08:26 AM
 
Location: Romania
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Thank you for contribution!

It may be true that salt extraction first started in Carpathians, as it was always the richest in salt deposits zone of Europe. Until 18th century, salt was Transylvania's main export and during the short Roman rule in Dacia is believed that the salt extracted and transported into empire was more important than the gold, though Dacia was the main gold supplier of the empire, as in antiquity as today, the Carpathians held the biggest gold ores on the continent as well.



Neolithic Romania is interesting also for the fact is a sort of link between the cultures that developed to the south, in Balkans and the Cucuteni Culture, which developed more to the north.
Nevertheless, in respect of Cucuteni Culture, the sites in Ukraine were considerably bigger. Here are reconstructions of two of them:






Talianki (4000-3600 BCE) - 30,000 inhabitants in final phase








Maydanets (4000-3600 BCE) - 10,000 inhabitants










Here is a table with more Cucuteni settlements from Ukraine and the aproximation of their population:
Settlements of the Cucuteni







.
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Old 10-28-2014, 03:47 PM
 
Location: Romania
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As the video I posted in the first post of the thread was removed from Youtube, I'm posting it again, as it proves that what is presented on this thread is not nationalistic nonsense but scientifically-based stuff.

Check out what says about Balkans the world's leading expert in ancient scripts and languages, Harald Haarmann:


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Old 01-24-2015, 03:33 AM
 
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More of old Europe turns up.

6,000-Year-Old Temple Unearthed in Ukraine | Archaeology | Sci-News.com

Add another 6000 year old temple. I am glad that I live in a time when this lost civilization is being uncovered.
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Old 01-25-2015, 06:40 AM
 
Location: NW Indiana
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Quote:
Originally Posted by cachibatches View Post
More of old Europe turns up.

6,000-Year-Old Temple Unearthed in Ukraine | Archaeology | Sci-News.com

Add another 6000 year old temple. I am glad that I live in a time when this lost civilization is being uncovered.
Great link!

Also, I completely agree about living during a time when so much about early civilization is being discovered. This kind of research if fascinating to me.
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Old 01-25-2015, 10:07 AM
 
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You know I'd be curious to know if say Catalhoyuk in Turkey may contribute some clues on the question. Archaeologists term it the world's 'oldest' city. The art artifacts found are sophisticated for the age (some are considered unique in world history) and it has been considered a very important site for the origins of settled farming. Some even believe it is the ' homeland of the Indo-European language and people'.
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Old 01-25-2015, 04:45 PM
 
Location: Independent Republic of Ballard
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Hundreds of graves near the town of Varna, Bulgaria, from ca. 4400 BCE, show a hitherto unknown stratification between the native masses and an intrusive elite. This is best exemplified by the presence of many golden grave-goods including a scepter. Apparently, the lowlier natives had come (or been forced) to accept the superimposition of an elite consisting of immigrants from the steppe. Yet, there are no signs of armed conflict: the immigrants from the east seem to have established themselves peacefully.
Koenraad Elst: The “Varna event” and the Indo-European homeland question

Apparently, the Indo-Europeans were able to infiltrate "Old European" territory, due to a mobility advantage from using horse-drawn chariots. The building of walled defenses would have been in response to that pressure. While the Indo-Europeans might not have been able to directly overcome walled defenses, it is also quite likely that those huddled behind those defenses weren't able to outlast extended seiges. An incursion establishing Indo-Europeans in-force nearby could have denied access to surrounding fields and disrupted trade networks. Old European population centers also failed to rally to each other's defense, at least partly due to being at a technological disadvantage in warfare, but also possibly due to political disunity that allowed them to be isolated and picked off one-by-one, much as Rome was able to defeat the cities of Etruria one-by-one.

There is also a distinction between cultures dominated by priests, primarily agricultural, and those dominated by warriors, primarily nomadic/pastoral. Warrior cultures are also likely to eat more meat and dairy compared to agricultural grain-eaters (with the priests getting the bulk of the meat through sacrifices), meaning the former likely had a physical as well as a technological advantage. Another example of such a clash would have been the defeat of the agricultural/priestly culture of the Nile Delta by the warrior-based culture of Upper Egypt. The Indo-Aryan/Harappa conflict could have been another.

Notice that there is little material evidence of the Indo-Aryan invasion into the northern India or the Dorian invasion of Greece, but there is little doubt that they happened (based on linguistic and other evidence). The undermining and subjection of the Old Europeans by the Indo-Europeans likely proceeded in the same way.

The distinction between a culture and a civilization is a tenuous one. Without a written language it is difficult to control larger territories or trade networks. Both Sumerian cuneiform and Egyptian hieroglyphs likely developed due to the need to keep inventories in centralized storehouses.
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Old 03-15-2015, 02:41 AM
 
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Keep finding these pieces of old Europe:

Archaeology: 8000 year-old Sun temple found in Bulgaria - Tourism - The Sofia Echo
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