U.S. CitiesCity-Data Forum Index
Go Back   City-Data Forum > General Forums > History
 [Register]
Please register to participate in our discussions with 1.5 million other members - it's free and quick! Some forums can only be seen by registered members. After you create your account, you'll be able to customize options and access all our 15,000 new posts/day with fewer ads.
Jump to a detailed profile or search
site with Google Custom Search

Search Forums  (Advanced)
Business Search - 14 Million verified businesses
Search for:  near: 
Reply Start New Thread
 
Old 09-05-2009, 09:01 PM
 
17 posts, read 2,369 times
Reputation: 16
Default How were Hispanics treated during Civil Rights Movement?

What about dark Hispanics, were they considered black? and what about the light ones? Were they forced to sit in back of the bus?
Reply With Quote Quick reply to this message

 
Old 09-05-2009, 11:31 PM
 
4,766 posts, read 4,198,465 times
Reputation: 1538
Well the civil rights movement largelly took place in the southeastern states. There weren't that many Hispanics in those states in the 50's and 60's. From what I can remember reading during that period in the states where Hispanics were more prevelant like Texas and California Mexicans were actually counted as white by the census but they were treated as "lesser whites". They did face discrimination. In fact a school desegregation case in California involving some Mexican students,Mendez v. Westminster, was used as a precident for Bown vs Board Of Education. I'am talking about Mexicans here but you will need to check the issues and experiances as it relates to Cubans in Florida and Puerto Ricans in NY. Each Latino group had their own particular experiance in the 60's where they lived.
Reply With Quote Quick reply to this message
 
Old 09-06-2009, 12:21 AM
 
5,887 posts, read 4,704,492 times
Reputation: 9572
During the years of segregation, if you looked black - you were black. The State Department warned foreign embassy staff, etc. from countries where people were inclined to be dark-skinned that it was not advisable to travel in the U.S. south. A Puerto Rican who appeared to have black African heritage was "colored." And "colored," no matter where they came from were subject to the segregation laws.
Reply With Quote Quick reply to this message
 
Old 09-06-2009, 02:02 AM
 
Location: West Los Angeles (in the Hall of the Paleo-Atlantids)
3,304 posts, read 2,641,374 times
Reputation: 3294
Before and during the civil rights movement, many Mestizos passed themselves off as being [Spanish] Europeans. However, after the civil rights movement, when it became socially, politically, and economically beneficial to be a person of color, those same Mestizos suddenly became non-White.
Reply With Quote Quick reply to this message
 
Old 09-06-2009, 04:54 AM
 
1,257 posts, read 1,981,568 times
Reputation: 371
Exitus

The Census Bureau classed White Hispanics as non-whites, notwithstanding their desire to be white or not.

For example, if you are a white Mexican or an American of Spanish descent that has been living in the U.S during the last 200 years, you are classified as Hispanic, and Hispanics in the U.S. is synonimous of Mexican mestizo or metis in Old American.

I met many descendants of Catalans that were considered Anglos just because many Catalan last names sound French, Italian or German. For example, if your name is Ramirez, Sánchez or Rodriguez, you'll be classified as a Hispanic, no matter that you are as white as Castillian Soap.

Before Civil Rights, Hispanics living in the U.S. were classified as White or non-Black, that was the reason why there was a Baseball Team integrated by African Americans called Cuban Boys. It was a legal contraption to play in the Major Leagues. It was funny because they didn't know any Spanish and they were forced to talk gibberish to pretend they were Cubans.

Many of the "Hispanics" living in the South, Southwest and California before Civil Rights were descendants of Spanish settlers, most from the Canary Islands. Some, as the "Isleños" of Louisiana have been living there since 1770, there were other groups at Key West, Tampa and California. One of the oldest European settlers in Florida were Minorcans.

I think they were called "Islenos", "Spanish" or in many cases "Cubans" because they came from Cuba to work in cigar factories around Tampa.

They were considered whites. I read, for example, about the "Islenos Curse", the "isleno" that was hanged by the KKK of Key West because he lived with a mulattoe girl. In the ensuing 40 years, most of the members of KKK of Key West died in strange accidents.

Last edited by Leovigildo; 09-06-2009 at 05:11 AM..
Reply With Quote Quick reply to this message
 
Old 09-06-2009, 05:37 AM
 
1,257 posts, read 1,981,568 times
Reputation: 371
Quote:
Originally Posted by Motion View Post
Well the civil rights movement largelly took place in the southeastern states. There weren't that many Hispanics in those states in the 50's and 60's. From what I can remember reading during that period in the states where Hispanics were more prevelant like Texas and California Mexicans were actually counted as white by the census but they were treated as "lesser whites". They did face discrimination. In fact a school desegregation case in California involving some Mexican students,Mendez v. Westminster, was used as a precident for Bown vs Board Of Education. I'am talking about Mexicans here but you will need to check the issues and experiances as it relates to Cubans in Florida and Puerto Ricans in NY. Each Latino group had their own particular experiance in the 60's where they lived.
-------------------------

During the 40's and 50's, Miami was packed with Cuban shoppers. They went there to buy because everything was cheaper. There were department stores such as Burdines, Ten Cents and Sears where Cuban money was one of the main sources of income. Shops and hotels were segregated, but Cubans were not segregated, not even black Cubans.

There were many "Cuban Music Bands", mostly black, in Miami Beach during the 50's. They stayed at a cheap hotel in South Beach, and Miami Beach was a "Sun Down Town".

Cuban students were a common fixture in every Catholic School in the South during the 40's and 50's and they never experienced any problem. In fact, some of them got nasty looks when they sat at the back of the bus because they were not used to it.
Reply With Quote Quick reply to this message
 
Old 09-06-2009, 08:58 AM
 
Location: Mesa, Az
21,157 posts, read 25,069,014 times
Reputation: 3623
Quote:
Originally Posted by Leovigildo View Post
Exitus

The Census Bureau classed White Hispanics as non-whites, notwithstanding their desire to be white or not.

For example, if you are a white Mexican or an American of Spanish descent that has been living in the U.S during the last 200 years, you are classified as Hispanic, and Hispanics in the U.S. is synonimous of Mexican mestizo or metis in Old American.

I met many descendants of Catalans that were considered Anglos just because many Catalan last names sound French, Italian or German. For example, if your name is Ramirez, Sánchez or Rodriguez, you'll be classified as a Hispanic, no matter that you are as white as Castillian Soap.

Before Civil Rights, Hispanics living in the U.S. were classified as White or non-Black, that was the reason why there was a Baseball Team integrated by African Americans called Cuban Boys. It was a legal contraption to play in the Major Leagues. It was funny because they didn't know any Spanish and they were forced to talk gibberish to pretend they were Cubans.

Many of the "Hispanics" living in the South, Southwest and California before Civil Rights were descendants of Spanish settlers, most from the Canary Islands. Some, as the "Isleños" of Louisiana have been living there since 1770, there were other groups at Key West, Tampa and California. One of the oldest European settlers in Florida were Minorcans.

I think they were called "Islenos", "Spanish" or in many cases "Cubans" because they came from Cuba to work in cigar factories around Tampa.

They were considered whites. I read, for example, about the "Islenos Curse", the "isleno" that was hanged by the KKK of Key West because he lived with a mulattoe girl. In the ensuing 40 years, most of the members of KKK of Key West died in strange accidents.
And to run with your ball further:

There was a vicious White supremacist who was a member of the White Citizen's Council in St Bernard Parish, Louisiana named Leander H Perez. He was of Isleno lineage. Perez was as bad as Bull Connor.

In the Wash DC area 40 years ago; most 'Hispanics' were also counted as 'White'. Arizona: they went by skin tone; in the same family dark skinned Latinos had to deal with Jim Crow whereas siblings with fair complexion usually were exempt. Still another example: in the Old South; dark skinned Anglo kids; i.e. of Italian heritage had to go to the 'Colored' schools.

My bio surname is occasionally 'Hispanic' yet I am Nordic White. Thinking back on it; that name did cause me some grief till the racist party involved met me--------they gasped in disbelief since I was almost always 'whiter' than them.
Reply With Quote Quick reply to this message
 
Old 09-06-2009, 09:35 AM
 
1,257 posts, read 1,981,568 times
Reputation: 371
Arizona

You can be Hispanic and be Nordic White since Spain suffered many Germanic invasions and immigration from Northern Europe, but I guess that the typical steorotype is the typical Mediterranean inhabitant, just like Italians.

I guess that Catholic schools didn't practice Jim Crow.

Leander Perez...Leandro Pérez, yes, sounds Isleno all the way...



Some of Perez' statements:

In defending segregation, Perez said: Do you know what the Negro is? Animal right out of the jungle. Passion. Welfare. Easy life. That's the Negro.

The American Civil Rights Movement, according to Perez, was the work of "all those Jews who were supposed to have been cremated at Buchenwald and Dachau but weren't, and Roosevelt allowed 2 million of them illegal entry into our country."

In 1960, while opposing desegregation of local public schools at a New Orleans rally, Perez said: Don't wait for your daughter to be raped by these Congolese. Don't wait until the burrheads are forced into your schools. Do something about it now.

In response, Archbishop Joseph Rummel excommunicated Perez on April 16, 1962. Perez responded by saying the Catholic Church was "being used as a front for clever Jews" and announced that he would form his own church, the "Perezbyterians."

He eventually reconciled with the church before his death and received a requiem mass at Holy Name of Jesus Christ Church at Loyola University in New Orleans. He is interred at his home in Plaquemines Paris

Last edited by Leovigildo; 09-06-2009 at 09:56 AM..
Reply With Quote Quick reply to this message
 
Old 09-06-2009, 10:45 AM
 
4,766 posts, read 4,198,465 times
Reputation: 1538
Here's How the Hispanic category was created:

Quote:
Hardly anyone knows that 28 years ago, Flores-Hughes and a handful of other Spanish-speaking federal employees helped make the decision that changed how people with mixed Spanish heritage would be identified in this country...

AABE--The Roots of 'Hispanic'

This talks about the Black Cuban experiance in the Jim Crow South(Tampa Florida):

Quote:
When Afro Cubans arrived in Ybor City to work in the cigar factories, local laws and customs defined them as black and assigned them to the same legal category as African Americans, despite the differences in language and heritage (2). At the same time, they maintained an identity with and cultural ties to the larger Cuban community...

The Afro-Cuban Community in Ybor City and Tampa, 1886-1910 | Nancy Raquel Mirabel | OAH Magazine of History (http://www.oah.org/pubs/magazine/africanamerican/mirabal.html - broken link)
Reply With Quote Quick reply to this message
 
Old 09-06-2009, 10:59 AM
 
Location: Victoria TX
38,729 posts, read 34,398,394 times
Reputation: 28427
I went to a state university in a southern state in 1956. There were hundreds of students there from many Latin American countries, but all were white. There were no black students admitted at all, from any country. Discrimination against Latins was no more than it had been in the midwest. In fact, perhaps less, because after all, the Latin students were intellectuals from wealthy families, as opposed to migrant pickers.

There were a few Latin students who looked like they might have had some smoky ancestry, but there didn't seem to be any agitation on the part of overly prejudiced students against them. In fact, one rather cute girl was called "the black one", sometimes endearingly.
Reply With Quote Quick reply to this message
Please register to post and access all features of our very popular forum. It is free and quick. Over $68,000 in prizes has already been given out to active posters on our forum. Additional giveaways are planned.

Detailed information about all U.S. cities, counties, and zip codes on our site: City-data.com.


Reply
Please update this thread with any new information or opinions. This open thread is still read by thousands of people, so we encourage all additional points of view.

Quick Reply
Message:


Over $79,000 in prizes was already given out to active posters on our forum and additional giveaways are planned!

Go Back   City-Data Forum > General Forums > History

All times are GMT -6.

© 2005-2014, Advameg, Inc.

City-Data.com - Archive 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25 - Top