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Old 02-15-2013, 02:57 PM
Location: La lune et les étoiles
17,611 posts, read 18,981,842 times
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Educator, Writer, and Activist Hallie Quinn Brown, (March 10, 1849 – September 16, 1949). Quinn was dean of Allen University in Columbia, South Carolina, principal of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama under Booker T. Washington and a professor at Wilberforce. She founded the Colored Woman's League of D.C., served as president of the Ohio State Federation of Colored Women's Clubs the National Association of Colored Women, and later directed campaign work among African American women for President Calvin Coolidge.

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Old 02-15-2013, 03:09 PM
Location: La lune et les étoiles
17,611 posts, read 18,981,842 times
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Tia Norfleet, drag racing and stock car racing driver. Daughter of NASCAR driver Bobby Norfleet, she is the first African-American woman to receive a NASCAR racing license.

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Old 02-15-2013, 07:44 PM
Location: South Side
3,856 posts, read 9,343,987 times
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Default Rescue at Sea!

Navy Seal snipers rescued an American cargo ship captain unharmed and killed three Somali pirates in a daring operation in the Indian Ocean on Sunday, ending a five-day standoff between United States naval forces and a small band of brigands in a covered orange lifeboat off the Horn of Africa.

Acting with President Obama’s authorization and in the belief that the hostage, Capt. Richard Phillips, was in imminent danger of being killed by captors armed with pistols and AK-47s, snipers on the fantail of the destroyer Bainbridge, which was towing the lifeboat on a 100-foot line, opened fire and picked off the three captors.

Do you know who commanded the fleet and who was ordered by the president to kill the pirates?

(April 26, 2009) – While the facts surrounding the kidnapping and rescue of the Maersk Alabama Captain Richard Phillips have been widely reported, less well-known is that ship which saved him was commanded by a black woman, Rear Admiral Michelle Howard.
Vice Adm. Howard is a 1978 graduate of Gateway High School in Aurora, Colo. She graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1982 and from the Army’s Command and General Staff College in 1998, with a master's in Military Arts and Sciences.

Howard’s initial sea tours were aboard USS Hunley (AS 31) and USS Lexington (AVT 16). While serving aboard Lexington, she received the Secretary of the Navy/Navy League Captain Winifred Collins award in May 1987. This award is given to one woman officer a year for outstanding leadership. She reported to USS Mount Hood (AE 29) as chief engineer in 1990 and served in Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. She assumed duties as first lieutenant on board the USS Flint (AE 32) in July 1992. In January 1996, she became the executive officer of USS Tortuga (LSD 46) and deployed to the Adriatic in support of Operation Joint Endeavor, a peacekeeping effort in the former Republic of Yugoslavia. Sixty days after returning from the Mediterranean deployment, Tortuga departed on a West African training cruise, where the ship’s Sailors, with embarked Marines and U.S. Coast Guard detachment, operated with the naval services of seven African nations.

She took command of USS Rushmore (LSD 47) on March 12, 1999, becoming the first African American woman to command a ship in the U.S. Navy. Howard was the commander of Amphibious Squadron Seven from May 2004 to September 2005. Deploying with Expeditionary Strike Group (ESG) 5, operations included tsunami relief efforts in Indonesia and maritime security operations in the North Arabian Gulf. She commanded Expeditionary Strike Group Two from April 2009 to July 2010. In 2009, she deployed to CENTCOM theater, where she commanded Task Force 151, Multi-national Counter-piracy effort, and Task Force 51, Expeditionary Forces. In 2010, she was the Maritime Task Force commander for BALTOPS, under 6th Fleet.
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Old 02-15-2013, 08:43 PM
802 posts, read 933,149 times
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Default The Gullah People of the SE Coast

The Gullah are the descendants of slaves who live in the Lowcountry region of South Carolina and Georgia, which includes both the coastal plain and the Sea Islands.

Historically, the Gullah region extended from the Cape Fear area on the coast of North Carolina south to the vicinity of Jacksonville on the coast of Florida; but today the Gullah area is confined to the South Carolina and Georgia Lowcountry. The Gullah people and their language are also called Geechee, which some scholars speculate is related to the Ogeechee River near Savannah, Georgia. The term "Geechee" is an emic term used by speakers (and can have a derogatory connotation depending on usage). "Gullah" is a term that was originally used to designate the language spoken by Gullah and Geechee people, but over time it has become a way for speakers to formally identify both their language and themselves as a distinctive group of people. The Georgia communities further identify themselves as either "Saltwater Geechee" or "Freshwater Geechee" depending on their proximity to the coast.

The Gullah have preserved much of their African linguistic and cultural heritage. They speak an English-based creole language containing many African loanwords and significant influences from African languages in grammar and sentence structure. Properly referred to as "Sea Island Creole," the Gullah language is related to Jamaican Creole, Barbadian Dialect, Bahamian Dialect, and the Krio language of Sierra Leone in West Africa. Gullah storytelling, cuisine, music, folk beliefs, crafts, farming and fishing traditions, all exhibit strong influences from West and Central African cultures.

The name "Gullah" may derive from Angola, where some Gullah people may have originated. Some scholars have also suggested it comes from Gola, an ethnic group living in the border area between Sierra Leone and Liberia in West Africa, another region where many of the Gullah ancestors originated. The name "Geechee", another common (emic) name for the Gullah people, may come from Kissi, an ethnic group living in the border area between Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia.
Some scholars have also suggested Native American origins for these words. The Spanish called the South Carolina and Georgia coastal region Guale after a Native American tribe. The Ogeechee River, a prominent geographical feature in coastal Georgia, takes its name from a Creek Indian word.

African roots

It has been claimed that most of the Gullahs' early ancestors of what is now the United States were brought to the South Carolina and Georgia Lowcountry through the ports of Charleston and Savannah as slaves, making their way from Sierra Leone by way of Brazil. Because Charleston was one of the most important ports in North America for the transatlantic slave trade, there may be some truth in that because up to half of the enslaved Africans brought into what is now the United States came through that port. A great majority of the remaining flowed through Savannah, which was also active in the slave trade.

The largest group of enslaved Africans brought into the port cities of Charleston and Savannah came from the West African rice-growing region, centered primarily in present-day Sierra Leone, through Bunce Island, the most significant castle for slaves transported to the modern day United States. But since Sierra Leone was founded by the British as a haven for slaves rescued from the Middle Passage or freed slaves returned from the United States and Caribbean (as Liberia was founded, by an act of U.S Congress, no slaves were ever taken from Liberia and Sierra Leone, previously called the "Grain Coast". This makes it all the more likely that the name "Gullah" came from the Gola tribe whose language and culture pre-date the modern names of the countries they still inhabit, namely Liberia and Sierra Leone. The people had cultivated African rice in this section of West Africa for possibly up to 3,000 years. South Carolina and Georgia rice planters once called this region the "Rice Coast", indicating its importance as a source of skilled African labor for the North American rice industry. Once planters discovered that rice would grow in the southern U.S. regions, they believed that enslaved Africans from rice-growing regions would be useful, given their knowledge of rice-growing techniques. In 1750, Henry Laurens and Richard Oswald, British-American colonists, opened a major slave castle just up the Sierra Leone River on what was then called Bance Island (now Bunce Island). The ancestors for up to 80 percent of African Americans in the United States whose heritage comes from the slave trade are believed to have been transported from here.

The Gullah people have been able to preserve much of their African cultural heritage because of geography, climate, and patterns of importation of enslaved Africans. Taken from the Western region of Africa in primarily the Krio and Mende populations of what is today Sierra Leone as slaves and transported to some areas of Brazil (including Bahia) the Gullah-Gheechee slaves were then sold to slave owners in what was then Charlestowne, South Carolina. However, according the British historian P.E.H. Hair, Gullah culture, although formed in large part by Sierra Leonean customs, seems be a mixture to elements of different African cultures. So, the Gullahs' ancestors must have been from many different tribes, or ethnic groups, in Africa. Those from the Rice Coast, the largest group, included the Wolof, Mandinka, Fula, Baga, Susu, Limba, Temne, Mende, Vai, Kissi, Kpelle, etc.—but there were also slaves brought from the Gold Coast, Calabar, Congo Republic, and Angola.

By the middle of the 18th century, the South Carolina and Georgia Lowcountry was covered by thousands of acres of rice fields. African farmers from the "Rice Coast" brought the skills for cultivation and tidal irrigation that made rice one of the most successful industries in early America.
The subtropical climate that made the Lowcountry such an excellent place for rice production also made it vulnerable to the spread of malaria and yellow fever. These tropical diseases, endemic in Africa, were carried by slaves transported to the colonies by slave ships. Mosquitoes in the swamps and inundated rice fields of the Lowcountry picked up and spread the diseases to English and European settlers, as well.

Malaria and yellow fever soon became endemic in the region.
Because of having built some immunity in their homeland, Africans were more resistant to tropical fevers than the Europeans. In addition, because planters devoted large areas of land to plantations for rice and indigo, the white population of the Lowcountry and Sea Islands grew at a slower rate than the black population. More and more enslaved Africans were brought as laborers onto the Sea Islands and into the Lowcountry as the rice industry expanded. By about 1708, South Carolina had a black majority.[6] Coastal Georgia later acquired its own black majority after rice cultivation expanded there in the mid-18th century, and malaria and yellow fever became endemic. Fearing disease, many white planters left the Lowcountry during the rainy spring and summer months when fever ran rampant. Others lived mostly in cities such as Charleston.

They left their African "rice drivers," or overseers, in charge of the plantations. Working on large plantations with hundreds of laborers, and with African traditions reinforced by new imports from the same regions, the Gullahs developed a culture in which elements of African languages, cultures, and community life were preserved to a high degree. Their culture was quite different from that of slaves in states like Virginia and North Carolina, where slaves lived in smaller settlements and had more sustained and frequent interactions with whites.

African influences are found in every aspect of the Gullahs' traditional way of life:

The Gullah word guber for peanut derives from the KiKongo word N'guba.

Gullah rice dishes called "red rice" and "okra soup" are similar to West African "jollof rice" and "okra soup".

Jollof rice is a style of cooking brought by the Wolof people of West Africa.

The Gullah version of "gumbo" has its roots in African cooking. "Gumbo" is derived from a word in the

Umbundu language of Angola, meaning okra, one of the dish's main ingredients.

Gullah rice farmers once made and used mortar and pestles and winnowing fanners similar in style to tools
used by West African rice farmers.

Gullah beliefs about "hags" and "haunts" are similar to African beliefs about malevolent ancestors, witches, and "devils" (forest spirits).

Gullah "root doctors" protect their clients against dangerous spiritual forces by using ritual objects similar to those employed by African traditional healers.

Gullah herbal medicines are similar to traditional African remedies.
The Gullah "seekin" ritual is similar to coming of age ceremonies in West African secret societies, such as the Poro and Sande.

The Gullah ring shout is similar to ecstatic religious rituals performed in West and Central Africa.
Gullah stories about "Bruh Rabbit" are similar to West and Central African trickster tales about the clever and conniving rabbit, spider, and tortoise.

Gullah spirituals, shouts, and other musical forms employ the "call and response" method commonly used in African music.

Gullah "sweetgrass baskets" are coil straw baskets made by the descendants of slaves in the South Carolina Lowcountry, and are almost identical to coil baskets made by the Wolof people in Senegal.
Gullah "strip quilts" mimic the design of cloth woven with the traditional strip loom used throughout West Africa. The famous kente cloth from Ghana is woven on the strip loom.
The folk song Michael Row the Boat Ashore (or Michael Row Your Boat Ashore) comes from the Gullah culture.

In recent years the Gullah people—led by Penn Center and other determined community groups—have been fighting to keep control of their traditional lands. Since the 1960s, resort development on the Sea Islands has threatened to push Gullahs off family lands they have owned since emancipation. They have fought back against uncontrolled development on the islands through community action, the courts and the political process.

The Gullahs have struggled to preserve their traditional culture. In 1979, a translation of the New Testament in the Gullah language began.[citation needed] The American Bible Society published De Nyew Testament in 2005. In November 2011, Healin fa de Soul, a five-CD collection of readings from the Gullah Bible was released.[citation needed] This collection includes Scipcha Wa De Bring Healing ("Scripture That Heals") and the Gospel of John (De Good Nyews Bout Jedus Christ Wa John Write). This was also the most extensive collection of Gullah recordings, surpassing those of Lorenzo Dow Turner. The recordings help people develop an interest in the culture because people might not have known how to pronounce some words.

The Gullahs achieved another victory in 2006 when the U.S. Congress passed the "Gullah/Geechee Cultural Heritage Corridor Act" that provides $10 million over 10 years for the preservation and interpretation of historic sites relating to Gullah culture. The Heritage Corridor will extend from southern North Carolina to northern Florida. The project will be administered by the US National Park Service with extensive consultation with the Gullah community.

Gullahs have also reached out to West Africa. Gullah groups made three celebrated "homecomings" to Sierra Leone in 1989, 1997, and 2005. Sierra Leone is at the heart of the traditional rice-growing region of West Africa where many of the Gullahs' ancestors originated. Bunce Island, the British slave castle in Sierra Leone, sent many African captives to Charleston and Savannah during the mid- and late 18th century. These dramatic homecomings were the subject of three documentary films—Family Across the Sea (1990), The Language You Cry In (1998), and Priscilla's Homecoming (in production).

Celebrating Gullah culture

Over the years, the Gullahs have attracted many historians, linguists, folklorists, and anthropologists interested in their rich cultural heritage. Many academic books on that subject have been published. The Gullah have also become a symbol of cultural pride for blacks throughout the United States and a subject of general interest in the media. This has given rise to countless newspaper and magazine articles, documentary films, and children's books on Gullah culture, and to a number of popular novels set in the Gullah region.

Gullah people now organize cultural festivals every year in towns up and down the Lowcountry. Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, for instance, hosts a "Gullah Celebration" in February. It includes "De Aarts ob We People" show; the "Ol’ Fashioned Gullah Breakfast"; "National Freedom Day," the "Gullah Film Fest", "A Taste of Gullah" food and entertainment, a "Celebration of Lowcountry Authors and Books," an "Arts, Crafts & Food Expo," and "De Gullah Playhouse". Beaufort, South Carolina hosts the oldest and the largest celebration "The Original Gullah Festival" in May, and nearby Penn Center on St. Helena Island, South Carolina holds "Heritage Days" in November. Other Gullah festivals are celebrated on James Island, South Carolina and Sapelo Island, Georgia.

But Gullah culture is also being celebrated elsewhere throughout the United States. Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana recently held an event to showcase the Gullah culture. Purdue's Black Cultural Center maintains a bibliography of Gullah publications as well. Metro State College in Denver, Colorado recently hosted a conference on Gullah culture, called "The Water Brought Us: Gullah History and Culture", which featured a panel of Gullah scholars and cultural activists. These events in Indiana and Colorado are typical of the attention Gullah culture now receives on a regular basis throughout the United States.

Cultural survival

Gullah culture has proven to be particularly resilient. Gullah traditions are strong not only in the rural areas of the Lowcountry mainland and on the Sea Islands, but also in urban areas like Charleston and Savannah. But some of the old fashioned ways have persisted even among Gullah people who have left the Lowcountry and moved far away. Many Gullahs migrated to New York starting at the beginning of the 20th century, and these urban migrants have not lost their identity. Gullahs have their own neighborhood churches in Harlem, Brooklyn, and Queens. Typically they send their children back to rural communities in South Carolina and Georgia during the summer months to be reared by grandparents, uncles and aunts. Gullah people living in New York also frequently return to the Lowcountry to retire. Second- and third-generation Gullahs in New York often maintain many of their traditional customs and sometimes still speak the Gullah language.
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Old 02-15-2013, 09:45 PM
Location: Los Angeles County, CA
29,125 posts, read 21,968,123 times
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Damon Dunn

- Stanford University football player, NFL wide receiver, 2010 Republican candidate for California Secretary of State, and current candidate for mayor of Long Beach.

Damon Dunn - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Old 02-17-2013, 01:52 PM
Location: The Brat Stop
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Default Michael Has Reached The Big Five O

Happy 50th. Michael!!

Michael Jordan at 50: Still the Greatest - ABC News

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Old 02-17-2013, 03:53 PM
Location: La lune et les étoiles
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Mary Ann Shadd Cary (1823-1893) African American teacher, journalist, lawyer, and suffragist. She was a spokesperson and editor of the Provincial Freeman. She married Thomas Cary of Toronto but became a widow (1869). She moved to Washington, D. C., taught public school, and became the first woman student at Howard University Law School. Not permitted to graduate because D. C. did not admit women to the bar, she returned ten years later (1883) to receive her law degree at 60.

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Old 02-17-2013, 03:57 PM
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Originally Posted by Harrier View Post
Just bought tickets for my daughters to see her speak at a womens leadership conference in March.

They are exicted as all get out.

Even the one who leans liberal.
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Old 02-17-2013, 03:58 PM
Location: La lune et les étoiles
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Lutie Lytle (1875 - date of death unknown)

A school teacher who saved part of her earnings to help finance her law school tuition at Central Tennessee College in Nashville. Lytle completed her studies at Central Tennessee College and in September 1897 she was to practice law in the Criminal Court in Memphis, Tennessee, after she successfully passed an oral exam. At the time Lytle was reportedly the first African American woman to be licensed to practice law in Tennessee, and the third in the United States. Lytle however soon returned to her hometown, Topeka, where she became the first African American woman admitted to the Kansas State bar.

In 1898, Lytle announced that she would become a part of the faculty at Central Tennessee University. The only Black female law instructor in the world at that time her status as a black woman on a 19th Century law school faculty was exceedingly rare. Lytle served only one year in this position.

By 1910, Lytle was living in Brooklyn, New York, with her husband Alfred C. Cowan, who was also a lawyer. The couple often attended the annual convention of what is now the National Bar Association, the professional organization for African American attorneys. Lytle was the first black woman to become a member of the Association and she and her husband were the first married couple to participate as attorneys in the organization.

Lytle returned to Topeka in 1925 and addressed a large audience at St. John’s A.M.E. Church, which she had attended in her youth. She recalled her own history in the legal profession in New York City and discussed black politics and politicians there. She shared examples of racially integrated schools, the flamboyant activities and nationalistic message of Marcus Garvey and the United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), and the Harlem Renaissance

Lutie Lytle and her husband bore no children and the exact date of her death is unknown
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Old 02-17-2013, 04:18 PM
Location: La lune et les étoiles
17,611 posts, read 18,981,842 times
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When Anita Florence Hemmings applied to Vassar in 1893, there was nothing in her records to indicate that she would be any different from the 103 other girls who were entering the class of 1897. But by August 1897, the world as well as the college had discovered her 'secret'. Anita Hemmings was Vassar’s first black graduate — more than 40 years before the college opened its doors to African Americans.

A more extensive account of Anita's story by one of her descendents who learned of the family "secret" only on her grandmother's deathbed.

Fading To White | American History Lives at American Heritage
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