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Old 09-03-2009, 12:21 PM
 
Location: Forests of Maine
31,147 posts, read 50,318,661 times
Reputation: 19849

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Rural folks have a greater tendency to being or knowing a Beekeeper than do urban folk.

A new study is out now concerning the handling of High-Fructose-Corn-Syrup; which is geared mostly to the beekeepers, but also pertains to home cooking.

I know that my Dw uses corn syrup in her cooking, and I have recipes which call for the corn syrup in preparing bee-feed.

We have often heated corn syrup, and we have never stored corn syrup in a stainless steel container [heck it comes in a glass bottle when we buy it]. So I know that I have un-wittingly violated the HFCS industry's standards for safe handling of HFCS.

So this new knowledge hits me squarely, and I must adjust my procedures accordingly.

I trust that this knowledge will likewise assist others. In this hope I submit to you folks the following news article.






HFCS Potentially Dangerous When Even Slightly Heated
Researchers have established the conditions that foster formation of potentially dangerous levels of a toxic substance in the high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) often fed to honey bees. Their study, which appears in the current issue of ACS' bi-weekly Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, could also help keep the substance out of soft drinks and dozens of other human foods that contain HFCS. The substance, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), forms mainly from heating fructose.

In the new study, Blaise LeBlanc and Gillian Eggleston and colleagues note HFCS's ubiquitous usage as a sweetener in beverages and processed foods. Some commercial beekeepers also feed it to bees to increase reproduction and honey production. When exposed to warm temperatures, HFCS can form HMF and kill honeybees. Some researchers believe that HMF may be a factor in Colony Collapse Disorder, a mysterious disease that has killed at least one-third of the honeybee population in the United States .

The scientists measured levels of HMF in HFCS products from different manufacturers over a period of 35 days at different temperatures. As temperatures rose, levels of HMF increased steadily. Levels jumped dramatically at about 120 degrees Fahrenheit. "The data are important for commercial beekeepers, for manufacturers of HFCS, and for purposes of food storage. Because HFCS is incorporated as a sweetener in many processed foods, the data from this study are important for human health as well," the report states. It adds that studies have linked HMF to DNA damage in humans. In addition, HMF breaks down in the body to other substances potentially more harmful than HMF.

HFCS Not Dangerous When Even Slightly Heated, Says Corn Refiner’s Association Storage standards and temperature control for HFCS mean human health is not at risk from the formation of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), the Corn Refiners Association asserts, which also refutes suggestions that the toxin could be a factor in honeybee colony collapse disorder.

In a new study by published in the Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, USDA researchers measured HMF levels in samples of HFCS over a 35 day time frame, at temperatures of 31.5, 40.0, 49.0 and 68.8ºc.

Study leader LeBlanc and team saw that HMF levels increased steadily with temperature, and that there was a dramatic jump at 49 ºc – a finding they said is important for commercial beekeepers, for manufacturers of HFCS, and for purposes of food storage.

But the CRN has called the study "flawed", and emphasized that its members have safety measures and best practices in place.

Dr John White of White Technical Research, a consultant whose clients include the CRN, told FoodNavigator.com that there are well-established and widely-available industry storage standards for HFCS: for HFCS 55 the temperature standard is between 75ºF and 86 ºF (23.9 ºC to 30 ºC), and for HFCS 42 between 95ºF and 106 ºF (35 ºC to 41.1 ºC).

Moreover, the standards specify use of containers made with stainless steel or mild steel coated with stainless steel material.

“Clearly LeBlanc used extreme conditions aimed at maximising HMF formation which contradicted both temperature and vessel composition specifications. It should be noted that any syrup source subjected to such harsh treatment would produce elevated levels of HMF,” White said, on behalf of the Corn Refiners Association.

No danger to bees or humans - The CRA and White say the risk of HMF to humans presented by the new study are also over-egged. They say that a 2000 study by Janzowski et al discounts HMF as posing a serious health risk to humans.
The new study also suggested that the formation of HMF could be a factor in the decline in honey bee populations, known as colony collapse disorder (CCD). It leaned on a study published in 1966 by Bailey to support claims that the toxin that causes gut ulceration and dysentery-like symptoms in bees.

HFCS is given to bees to stimulate brood rearing and boost honey production. But according to White, properly stored HFCS would not pose a risk for honeybees.

He cites a study by Jachimowicz et al, published in 1975, which saw that concentrations of up to 3mg HMF per 100g of solution was harmless for bees. This would mean that the base HMF level established by LeBlanc, of 30 parts per million (ppm) is also harmless.

“Honeybee producers clearly violate published storage recommendations when they expose HFCS to excessive temperatures and store it for prolonged periods in unapproved containers.”

Nor was HFCS cited as a potential cause of CCD published this year in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences; rather, ribosomal RNA degradation was seen to be the likely cause.

FoodNavigator’s article on the original study is available here Researchers warn of toxin increase in heated HFCS

References:

Apidologie 1975; 6:121-143
“Problems of invert sugar as food for honeybees”
Authors: Jachimowicz, T; El Sherbiny, G.

Journal of Agriculture and Food Science 2009, 57, 736907376
DOI: 10.1021/jf9014526 Formation of hydroxymethylfurfural in domestic high fructose corn syrup and its toxicity to the honey bee (Apis mellifera) Authors: LeBlanc, B; Eggleston, G; Sammataro, D; Cornett, C; Dufault, R; Deeby, T; St Cyr, E.

Food Chemical Toxicology 2000; 38:801-809
“5-Hydroxymethylfurfural: assessment of mutagenicity, DNA-damaging potential and reactivity toward cellular glutathione”
Janzowski, C; Glaab, B; Samimi, E; Schlatter, J; Eisenbrand, G.








So it would appear that HFCS must be kept below 120 degrees, in stainless steel containers or else it can form hydroxymethylfurfural.

The industry recommends that HFCS be stored between 75ºF and 86 ºF.
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Old 09-04-2009, 01:05 AM
 
54 posts, read 187,199 times
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HFCS and corn syrup that you buy at the store are not the same thing.
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Old 09-04-2009, 08:53 AM
 
Location: Forests of Maine
31,147 posts, read 50,318,661 times
Reputation: 19849
I will look into the idea that corn syrup might not contain HFCS.

Corn syrup is commonly used by beekeepers as a feed for our hives, thus this study and the idea that
hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) may be a component in why so many hives die.
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Old 09-04-2009, 10:56 AM
 
Location: West Michigan
12,083 posts, read 34,589,709 times
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Quote:
Originally Posted by forest beekeeper View Post
I will look into the idea that corn syrup might not contain HFCS.

Corn syrup is commonly used by beekeepers as a feed for our hives, thus this study and the idea that
hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) may be a component in why so many hives die.
Most small bottles of Corn syrup is just that, regular old corn syrup and not a HFCS. In regular corn syrup the sugar is a glucose (100% glucose in fact), in a HFCS the glucose is changed using enzymes that turn the glucose into Fructose, then blended with regular corn syrup to get the "right" sweetness (don't ask me why, it makes no sense to me.)
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Old 09-04-2009, 12:01 PM
 
Location: Somewhere in northern Alabama
18,546 posts, read 55,477,958 times
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The sugars glucose, dextrose and fructose have different sweetnesses. In products like soft drinks, a sweeter sugar can require less sugar and therefore save money. A few years back I had a debate with someone online about HFCS, where I took the position that it was innocuous. As I started to look more deeply into the subject, I eventually changed my mind and came to agree with the person I had been challenging in the debate.

One of the very interesting side issues of that debate was the realization that the "sugar high" and wide fluctuations in sugar levels in the blood can be affected by the proper blends and sequencings of sugars, starches and proteins, which digest along different time lines. A person who has hypoglycemia can sometimes eat a sugar treat without it affecting them, IF they also eat other foods that buffer the effects.
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Old 09-04-2009, 02:55 PM
 
Location: Forests of Maine
31,147 posts, read 50,318,661 times
Reputation: 19849
Quote:
Originally Posted by Bydand View Post
Most small bottles of Corn syrup is just that, regular old corn syrup and not a HFCS. In regular corn syrup the sugar is a glucose (100% glucose in fact), in a HFCS the glucose is changed using enzymes that turn the glucose into Fructose, then blended with regular corn syrup to get the "right" sweetness (don't ask me why, it makes no sense to me.)
With all due respect, I have two points which I wish to make regarding your post.

First the enzymes are GMO. I know that for many folks this is a small matter. However for other folks GMO is a big matter.

Secondly I am going to quote the KARO Corn syrup website:

Quote:
...
Karo pancake syrup is a naturally thick maple flavor pancake and waffle topping made of corn syrup, high fructose corn syrup, caramel color, salt, potassium sorbate (to protect quality), natural and artificial colors.

Karo light corn syrup is a mixture of corn syrup and high fructose corn syrup (to provide increased sweetness) and is flavored with salt and pure vanilla. It is clear and colorless, with a moderately sweet flavor.

Karo dark corn syrup is a mixture of corn syrup and a small amount of refiners' syrup (a cane sugar product with a molasses-like flavor). Caramel flavor, sodium benzoate (a preservative), salt, and caramel color are added. Dark corn syrup has a rich brown color and distinctive flavor.
Karo Syrup - Lifes Sweetest Little Secret

[I should include that I added the bold to the above quotes]

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Old 09-04-2009, 03:25 PM
 
Location: Forests of Maine
31,147 posts, read 50,318,661 times
Reputation: 19849
Quote:
Originally Posted by jknight8907
HFCS and corn syrup that you buy at the store are not the same thing.
Like talking about multi-vitamins or specifically vitamin A.

HFCS is a specific sugar from a specific source.

Commercially marketed 'corn syrup's are blended mixtures of various stuff, which may include other sweeteners, preservatives, flavors and coloring agents.

In the case of the 'corn syrup' which we stock in our kitchen; which we have been told to use when preparing bee feed; which was bought in a grocery store; yes it does have HFCS in it.

I did not know for sure. So after reading your response, I began googling and researching the topic to learn more.

Thank you. Now I know.
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Old 09-04-2009, 03:35 PM
 
902 posts, read 3,301,270 times
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I say HFCS should be banned. We have abused it, and we have been suffering.
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Old 09-09-2009, 12:44 PM
 
Location: Londonderry, NH
41,490 posts, read 52,115,106 times
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I don’t know about bee or animal feed but the sugars in my kitchen are cane sugar for the caramelization, Splenda because I am a diabetic, Maple from the neighbor’s sugar bush for the flavor and Brown for some limited cooking.

I read the labels and avoid the HFCS. Now I know why. Thanks, guys.
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Old 12-22-2015, 05:23 AM
 
26,158 posts, read 15,747,082 times
Reputation: 17235
Quote:
Originally Posted by jknight8907
HFCS and corn syrup that you buy at the store are not the same thing.
I was wondering because alot of stuff has HFCS and it gets heated all the time! (When ya cook stuff,etc)
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