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Old 04-07-2017, 05:54 PM
 
2,854 posts, read 1,572,871 times
Reputation: 348

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Image below shows four equipotentials of a rapidly spinning planet. The equator reaches orbital velocity.



Planets form 4 at a time by being spun off the equator of the rapidly rotating protostar.
A pair of large planets and a pair of small planets.
At first all the planets are in the same orbit but one by one they recede from the protostar due to tidal acceleration.

All masses are in units of 10^22 kg

Protosun 9,500,000
Jupiter 189,800
Satyrn 56,830
Neptune 10,240
Ouranos 8,681
Protosun
Earth 597
Venus 487
Mars 64
Mercury 33
Jupiter has four large moons too :
Ganymede 15
Callisto 10
Io 9
Europa 5
Ouranos also has four large moons
Titania 0.35
Oberon 0.3
Ariel 0.135
Umbriel 0.117
Only two issues:
1) One large body in the inner system is unaccounted for
Ceres (Mass of asteroid belt =0.33)
2) Instead of having four moons Earth only has one moon

But these two issues partially cancel each other out if Ceres was originally a moon of Earth.

Earth
Moon 7
????? 3.5 (Struck Earth?)
????? 0.7 (completely unknown)
Ceres 0.33
Satyrn
Titan 13
???? 7 (Struck Ouranos)
Triton 2 (Captured by Neptune)
???? 1
Neptune
Pluto 1.3
Eris 1.67
Charon 0.16
????
(Earth mass + Venus mass)/(Mars mass + Mercury mass) = 11
(Jupiter mass + Saturn mass)/(Neptune mass + Uranus mass) = 13

Jupiter mass / Ouranos mass = 21.8
Earth mass / Mercury mass = 18.1
Moon mass / Asteroid belt mass = 22

Core collapse:
Protostar mass / (Jupiter mass + Saturn mass + Neptune mass + Uranus mass) = 35.7
Earth mass / (Asteroid belt mass + Moon mass) = 38.9 * 2 (But half the moons are missing)

Post core collapse:
Ouranos mass /(Titania mass + Oberon mass + Ariel mass + Umbriel mass) = 9580
Protostar mass / (Earth mass + Venus mass + Mars mass + Mercury mass) = 8035
Jupiter mass / (Ganymede mass + Io mass + Callisto mass + Europa mass) = 4830
(Saturn mass)/(titan mass) = 4225
(Neptune mass)/(pluto mass + Eris mass) = 3400

There are clearly two different processes going on here. Jupiter Saturn Uranus and Neptune were created by the collapse of the core of the very rapidly spinning protostar. Likewise the moons of Earth were created by the collapse of the core of the Earth.

However the moons of Jupiter and the inner planets Earth Mars Venus Mercury were created by a different process. Gas and dust falling on to the equator of the parent world would have made its way to the poles where it would have been boiled off (T-Tauri wind). In the process it would have transferred nearly all of it angular momentum to that world and the dust would have rained out and formed a layer of lava. Eventually this lava made its way to the equator, which by then was spinning at orbital velocity, and formed four planets or moons.

Jupiter mass / (Saturn mass + Uranus mass + Neptune mass) = 2.5
Earth mass / (Venus mass + Mercury mass + Mars mass) = 1

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lagrangian_point
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Old 04-08-2017, 08:04 PM
 
22,794 posts, read 17,268,975 times
Reputation: 9512
Actually, planets seem to be formed though a process of accretion as particles of dust in the protoplanetary disk which is composed of left over gas and dust which first formed the star collide with other particles and stick together to form clumps. Gravity results in an ever growing mass of material as it sweeps though the proto planetary disk. In time a planet can result.

And this process has been observed by the radio telescope ALMA Array (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) in northern Chile.

ALMA was trained on the star HL Tauri which is about 450 light years from earth and observed a series of concentric rings with dark patches in the protoplanetary disk. These dark patches appear to be young planets that are sweeping up material within the disk and causing the concentric rings.

This short video addresses this.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aqt7s0J10f8


And here is some information on the star HL Tauri and its protoplanetary disk.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HL_Tauri
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Old 04-08-2017, 08:04 PM
 
2,854 posts, read 1,572,871 times
Reputation: 348
A few changes

Image below shows four equipotentials of a rapidly spinning protostar. The equator reaches orbital velocity.
Planets form 4 at a time by being spun off the equator of the rapidly rotating 50 Jupiter mass protostar.
A pair of large planets and a pair of small planets.
At first all 4 of the planets are in the same orbit but one by one they recede from the protostar due to tidal acceleration.

All masses are in units of 10^22 kg

Protosun 9,500,000
Jupiter 189,800
Satyrn 56,830
Neptune 10,240
Ouranos 8,681

Protosun
Earth 597
Venus 487
Mars 64
Mercury 33

Jupiter has four large moons too :
Ganymede 15
Callisto 10
Io 9
Europa 5

Ouranos also has four large moons
Titania 0.35
Oberon 0.3
Ariel 0.135
Umbriel 0.117

Neptune would therefore be expected to have had four large moons before capturing Triton
2007-OR10 0.38
Makemake 0.3
Haumea 0.2
Quaoar 0.143

Orcus 0.08
Salacia 0.065
2003-AZ84 0.0396

Only two issues:
1) One large body (Ceres) in the inner system is unaccounted for
(Mass of asteroid belt =0.33)
2) Instead of having four moons Earth only has one moon

But these two issues partially cancel each other out if Ceres was originally a moon of Earth.

Earth
Moon 7
????? 7 (Struck Earth?)
????? 0.33 (completely unknown)
Ceres 0.33

Satyrn
Titan 13 perhaps two largest moons merged (this could explain the ring system)
????
???? 0.8 and the two smallest either struck Satyrn
???? 0.4 or were ejected

Titan 13
Rhea 0.23
Iapetus 0.18
Dione 0.11
Tethys 0.06

Titan 13
Enceladus 11/1000
Mimas 3.8/1000
Phoebe 0.8/1000
Hyperion 0.55/1000

Satyrn-sized proto-protosun 40,900+
Whatever struck Ouranos (this Collision most likely occurred when Ouranos was very close to the protosun)
Triton 2
Eris 1.67
Pluto 1.3 (Charon 0.16)

(Earth mass + Venus mass)/(Mars mass + Mercury mass) = 11
(Jupiter mass + Saturn mass)/(Neptune mass + Uranus mass) = 13

Jupiter mass / Ouranos mass = 21.8
Earth mass / Mercury mass = 18.1
Moon mass / Asteroid belt mass = 22

Post core collapse: small moons
Neptune mass / (2007-OR10 mass + Makemake mass + Haumea mass + Quaoar mass) = 10,000?
Ouranos mass / (Titania mass + Oberon mass + Ariel mass + Umbriel mass) = 9580
Protostar mass / (Earth mass + Venus mass + Mars mass + Mercury mass) = 8035

Post core collapse: large moons
Jupiter mass / (Ganymede mass + Io mass + Callisto mass + Europa mass) = 4830
Saturn mass / (titan mass) = 4225
Titan mass/(Enceladus mass + Mimas mass + Phoebe mass + Hyperion mass) = 842

Core collapse: very large moons
Earth mass / (Asteroid belt mass + Moon mass) = 38.9 * 2 (But half the moons are missing)
Protostar mass / (Jupiter mass + Saturn mass + Neptune mass + Uranus mass) = 35.7
Titan mass / (Rhea mass + Iapetus mass + Dione mass + Tethys mass) = 23.1

There are clearly two different processes going on here. Jupiter Saturn Uranus and Neptune were created by the collapse of the core of the very rapidly spinning protostar. Likewise the moons of Earth were created by the collapse of the core of the Earth.

However the moons of Jupiter and the inner planets Earth Mars Venus Mercury were created by a different process. Gas and dust falling on to the equator of the parent world would have made its way to the poles where it would have been boiled off (T-Tauri wind). In the process it would have transferred nearly all of it angular momentum to that world and the dust would have rained out and formed a layer of lava. Eventually this lava made its way to the equator, which by then was spinning at orbital velocity, and formed four planets or moons.

Jupiter mass / (Saturn mass + Uranus mass + Neptune mass) = 2.5
Earth mass / (Venus mass + Mercury mass + Mars mass) = 1

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lagrangian_point
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Old 04-08-2017, 08:11 PM
 
2,854 posts, read 1,572,871 times
Reputation: 348
Quote:
Originally Posted by Mike555 View Post
Actually, planets seem to be formed though a process of accretion as particles of dust in the protoplanetary disk which is composed of left over gas and dust which first formed the star collide with other particles and stick together to form clumps. Gravity results in an ever growing mass of material as it sweeps though the proto planetary disk. In time a planet can result.

And this process has been observed by the radio telescope ALMA Array (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) in northern Chile.

ALMA was trained on the star HL Tauri which is about 450 light years from earth and observed a series of concentric rings with dark patches in the protoplanetary disk. These dark patches appear to be young planets that are sweeping up material within the disk and causing the concentric rings.

This short video addresses this.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aqt7s0J10f8


And here is some information on the star HL Tauri and its protoplanetary disk.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HL_Tauri
That doesn't contradict anything I said. The planets originally formed 4 at a time close to the protostar. They then recede outward into the disk where they can continue to grow.
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