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Old 11-04-2021, 07:56 PM
 
Location: Somewhere on the Moon.
10,084 posts, read 14,952,774 times
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Part 2

Quote:
Originally Posted by Pueblofuerte
I would like to know more of the geographical extent of this ecosystem though? When I type in ”Llanura del Caribe” all I get is the coastal plains of Colombia's Caribbean region in all search engines, wikipedia, etc.. This is of course an important grasslands for cattle also but much less iconic than the actual Los Llanos Savannah which is a vast geological area in northern South America.

I found a handful of info when I typed in "Llanuras de Santo Domingo" but is there something like a wikipedia page with more specific details? e.g. Area, geography, economy, geology, main towns, etc.
Not really. The area is the least scenic part of the island. Most is flat and rolling hills with actual mountains along its northern edge, but even those mountains have notably lesser heights than mountains elsewhere. Ironically, this mountain chain actually continues to Puerto Rico forming the Central Mountains of that island. The mountain chain actually continues underwater through the Mona Passage, but never reaches enough heights to get out of water except in Puerto Rico. On that island this same mountain chain produces some higher heights than in the DR.

In terms of area, it's about the size of Puerto Rico or Jamaica or the US state of Connecticut, but it has a lower population thsn any of these places with around 1.5 million. Most concentrate around three cities, San Pedro de Macorís, La Romana and inland around Higüey. The rest is sparsely populated with a few sleepy towns and villages. The eastern extremity (Punta Cana, Bávaro, etc) now revolves around tourism, though it hardly had any people from about 40 years ago back to the times of the Taino indians. That whole region is rapidly attracting population, but estimates puts it at around 70,000 - 80,000 or about less than 1% of DR's population. It is projected to reach 100,000; but, even at that level it will be slightly less or at 1%.

Population settlement has changed. Always a rather small area in population. There were two major influx influx during colonial times. The first was in the 1500's as Spaniards settled the area and with mixture with the Tainos began to create mestizos. However, the introductions of Africans quickly followed. Although a small population overall, the Africans outnumbered the Spaniards. The area suffered depopulation as new discoveries were made in Mexico and in South America such as Peru. Since beyond agriculture there was not much else and not much room for personsl growth, people migrated there. Slave owners left with some of their valuable property, the most important were the blacks who as slaves produced the workforce for their wealth creation. The population became mulatto majority because the whites and the blcks were leaving in large numbers (the latter were taken more than went there because that was their choice), and the whites and blacks that remained help engriss the mixed race as every generatiin the mixed grew a little more than the other two. The first two picking mixed husbands/wives and the further mixing between the whites and the blacks explains this phenomenon. Keep in mind thst overall the region had a small population, so changes in the predominating character happen quickly.

Then in the 1700's through a migration policy from Spain intended to increase the population of the colony unless it was going to be lost to the French (they were having an incredible growth with on one hand a lot of mostly French people arriving and on the other hand the very large quantities of Africans that they imported and filled with every nook and cranny on that side), the Spanish government decided to encourage the migration of Spaniards from the Canary Islands.

Three things dictated this; first, the Canary Islands were grossly overpopulated with every space owned by someone. Agriculture was the main thing, so young people wanted to grow up and be farmers. Problem is the first thing you need is land. Due to this, the Canary Islands was facing widespread hunger.

Second, the Spaniards of the Canary Islands were living there for generations, fully adapted to a warmer climate. One of the issues Europeans had with moving to the tropics was that upin arrival a large segment would die from their inability to acclimatize.

Third, Canary Islanders had a high birth rate with the typical woman having around 8 children. That meant thst you settle a few families and within a generation or two the population had grown to satisfactory levels.

While most of the Spaniards from the Canary Islands settled elsewhere in the DR (first they arrived at the port in Santo Domingo and there the Spanish authorities would give them shovels and other stuff to start a new community, then the Spanish authorities would send them to different areas in the territory. Most towns founded during colonial times were founded by the Canary Islanders during the 1700's. Other towns were refounded, such as Montecristi and Puerto Plata, which were destroyed by the Spanish government in 1605/1606. Other towns that existed ever since they were founded by the Spanish in the 1490's and 1500's saw an increase of their populations as new Canary Islanders were assigned to them.

Now, regarding the characteristics of these Spanish Canarians, while the bulk were white people, a significant percentage was mixed particularly mulatto and Spaniards mixed with the Guanches, the indigenous people of the Canary Islands before they were conquered by the Spanish. Sone from the island of Tenerife were black (surprising since today there are hardly any blacks on Tenerife, but for a time the Spanish practiced slavery there abd those blacks were often from nearby Senegal and other places). All of them that migrated were free people and saw themselves and were held as by the Spanish as Spaniards. In addition, more often it included entire families. In fact, the professor at Laguna University in the Canary Islands, Manuel Henríquez González's book "La colonización de la frontera dominicana (1680 - 1795)" -not to be confused with his other book "Expansión fundacional y crecimiento en el norte dominicano (1680 - 1795): El Cibao y la bahía de Samaná," both books cover the Canary Islands migration to the DR-, on page 14 he cites a letter written in 1778 by Juan Antonio Urtusáustegui "...in the town of La Laguna the streets of El Tanque and San Juan are almost entirely depopulated due to the migration to Santo Domingo" and in another part he cites another letter where it says it was common to see people in the Canary Islands selling everything they had to finance their migration to Santo Domingo.

With regard to the East, some towns such as Sabana de la Mar was founded by Spaniards from the Canary Islands. Other towns, such as Higüey, saw an increase of its population with the arrival of Canarian families. With time rural areas surrounding these towns were settled by Canarians or descendants of Canarians. You can still see this in the names of many rural areas, such as between Higüey and Punta Cana is a small rural community of Cerro Gordo de los Isleños. Cerro Gordo is a place I think on the islabd of Tenerife in the Canary Islands. Canarians were often referred to as "Isleños," hence the name of the place. Basically, it translate to Fat Hill of the Canarians. The Caribbean coast remain devoid of people, most of the Canarians that settled in the east did inland around Higüey and El Seibo.

This migration flow lasted through much of the 1700's and came to an abrupt stop in 1795 when Spain and France signed the Treaty of Basilea where, among other things, Spain agree that France would deoccupy Catalunya in exchange for the Spanish part of the island of Santo Domingo, something that the French demanded. Two things regarding this; one, when news reached the island of what was done in Europe without taking into account the opinion of the residents, the people were shocked and most refused to accept it. It's even said that there was a woman in Santo Domingo and upon hearing the news from the Spanish governor in what is now Parque Colón in the Colonial Zone (then it was la Plaza de Armas and had nothing, just like the Zócalo in Mexico City) , she exclaimed "Spain, my country!," collapsed and died on the spot, it probably help produce a stroke that killed her. Second, while technically France was now the owner, it had a problem on its traditional territory of Saint-Domingue since at that the effects of the French Revolution and its emphasis on the equality of all men, in Saint-Domingue this created a problem since here were French with over 80% of the population held in slavery. Yeah, where was the "equality" in that? The decision of France emperor Napoleon Bonapart was to focus in pacifying the western part before it would take charge of the east. As a consequence, the Spanish governor Joaquín García remained governing the colony in 1796, 1797, 1798, 1799 and 1800. Despite that the Spanish government gave Dominicans upwards of two years to move to Cuba or Puerto Rico if they wanted to continue under the Spanish flag, and certain parts of the clergy and the Spanish government on the island had moved to then Puerto Príncipe, Cuba (today Camagüey), the people became calm seeing that one year came and left and nothing change, then the same in the next year, the same in the other year, etc. The general belief was that it was going to remain like that.

Then came 1801. Here we go, new century and boy do things change. Toussaint Loverture, the leader of the Haitians -then still a French colony- and who considered himself "The First of the Blacks," decided that it was time to put in effect the part of the treaty regarding the French territory on Hispaniola. Napoleon in Paris needed to give permission before the French could take control of the east. Loverture took it upon himself to do the invasion. Despite he did it under the French flag and in the name of France, this is considered the first Haitian invasion because he was in essence a Haitian and the military was composed mostly of blacks, hence Haitians too. The invasion took place with not much commotionand hardly any resistence and consisted of two columbs, one invaded through the south and the other via Dajabón in the north and the two columns would meet outside the gates of Santo Domingo, especially Puerta El Conde, which was built in the 1500's and still exist intact. There was a part of the Dominicans that confronted the northern column in the area of Sillón de la Viuda, but they were defeated and the Haitian army continue its march to Santo Domingo. They also left some Haitian soldiers on the outskirts of every town they passed through with orders to prevent anyone from leaving the towns and any countryfolk from entering.

This also created a contrast between the inhabitants and the invading army, because in the towns the inhabitants were mostly mixed of light skin and whites of Spanish descent. In the rural areas, most were devoid of people, but where there was people most were of mixed race closer to white than black. In some rural areas, such as many areas in the Cibao, most of the inhabitants were white of Spanish descent, for the most part descendants of the Canarians. In those areas even in the town the white population was either the majority or close to being in the majority. In these places there was a black population too, but it tended to be very small with a few here and a few there. In other areas, such as the rural areas near San Cristóbal all the way down to the coast of Haina, Palenque, Nizao, etc most of the population was black and basically indistinguishable from the typical Haitians in looks, but very different when it came to language and custom. While slavery existed, most of the people didn't own slaves and those that did it was usually a small group, often times consisting of 2 to 5 people (with their families obviously.) This caused the slave owners to know their slaves on a personal level, calling them by their name or nickname and knowing their family. It was often used more as added help, since even most slave owning families had to engage with the work of the fields along with the slaves, which wasn't plantation agriculture but often cattle ranching and hunting. This also condition the relationship between owner and slave with the former not being harsh with the latter and the latter not developing racial resentments towards the former. Spanish slave laws at that time were also known as being the weakest towards black of al, the European peoples in the Americas, making it rather easy for a slave black to buy his freedom and that of his family. This also resulted with another feature not just here, but of Spanish colonies in general. There were more free blacks than slave blacks, and once a slave black bought his freedom (or was freed as was the custom among slave owners as part of their will prior to dying, often depriving the next generation of slaves that in other colonies they would had inherit as property.) This was the case in general, but not entirely. In places like San Cristóbal, where the economy was based on plantations and, in fact, this area was known as "Los Ingenios" or "The Mills" because it had the greatest concentration of mills and plantations on the east part of the island. The area was also known as "Los Negros" or The Blacks for obvious reasons. There slave owners often owned hundreds of blacks, though never to the level of the French where often a single person literally owned thousands. Many of the owners were absentee, meaning they owned the plantation with the slave, but they lived in Madrid or Barcelona in Spain. Here the treatment of the blacks was harsher than in most places, but not as harsh as in the west. When Loverture invaded he freed the slaves. Since in most areas most were free since before that, it didn't have an effect since tomorrow life continued as it did today. Those that were slaves in most areas had received a leniant treatment, so many decided to stay where they were. The difference was that before they were paid for dkme of their labor after giving to their master the required amount by law of free labor while now they were owners of all their labor and free to work for anybody or for themselves. Those from the plantations, however, freedom of slavery meant not only they were owners of their labor, but treatment improved. This, however, caused racial resentment in some and they joined the Haitian army.

Despite the invasion of Loverture didn't have much effect in the east, because the Haitian army never made it to towns such as Higüey or El Seibo, and there was hardly a slave population in the region; some inhabitants choose to leave the island and they went to neighboring Puerto Rico. In some cases the though of they having to follow orders from a black was reason enough to leave. For others it was simply the fear of not knowing what coukd happen. And others were the typical weak kind, those that are like sheep and simply follow the herd because others are doing it. Since the early days of the Spsnish conquest and despite there were mixed and black priests even in places where most of the people weren't black, and mixed and black mayors and such all governors were Spaniards born on the Iberian Peninsula in Spain, the so called "peninsulares." For the first time ever, here was a guy in charge of the colony of full African descent. Most inhabitants remained however in the towns and rural areas.

When news arrived in Paris and Napoleon became aware of what Loverture did without his permission, he became angry with Loverture. He thought, probably right on this respect, that Loverture had hidden intentions of first having the entire island under his rule and then declare the island's independence from France. To prevent that, he sent a French army composed entirely of Frenchmen and their wives and headed by General Charles Leclerc. He was related to Napoleon, because he married Pauline Bonapart who was Napoleon's sister. Also accompanied him was General Louis Ferrand and General Jean-Baptiste Rochembeu (all of them took part in the French help during the Revolutinary War of the United States, but the things that he did to the blacks in Haiti has no pardon, ever. He was the embodiment of a real piece of sh**. Inhumaine and sadistic! Too much blood spilled by this "man" and in the most horrible ways, and much of it by his very own hands. Look, war is not a nice thing and people will be killed. War has been like that since ever. But what he did, that's not war-like killing. Wanting to torture a man until death, ripping apart a limb while a man is perfectly alive and awake, boiling live peopke as if they were lobsters; no, that 's not war. Those are the hallmarks of a very sick man. Today that's crime against humanity and no war excuses anyone from being subjected to justice because of this. That's only the tip of the iceberg of what he did.

Anyway, they arrived in 1802. By the time that hsppen, Loverture was back in the western part and left his brother Paul in Santo Domingo, which governed the entire southern part of the former Spanish side of the island, this includes the east. With the arrival of the French army, everywhere in the eastern part capitulated and the Haitian army was replaced by the Fench army (despite both technically were the French army, the major difference is that one had mostly black soldiers while the other one had mostly white soldiers.) When news reached Loverture in the west that everywhere in the east capitulated to the French army (just how everywhere capitulated when Loverture himself invaded the year before), Loverture became extremely anger and ordered something for which he was not known for. When he left Santo Domingo leaving his brother Paul in charge, he took with him a small group of Dominican soldiers along with their wives. They were taken as reguksr soldiers, not as prisoners or anything of the sort. Well, this small group was disarmed by orders of Loverture and that night were gathered along with their wives and all of them were butchered to death as retaliation. Loverture had come to the conclusion that Dominicans were traitors (an idea that still exist among certain Haitians and this has been confirm to me on several occasion by Haitians themselves.)

Anyway, things remained rather calm for the eastern region where Los Llanos is located. In 1805 was the second Haitian invasion, this time headed by Jean-Jacques Dessalines. Again, eastern towns were spared until towns in the rest of the DR. On their march back to Haiti, the column lead by Dessalines via the Cibao was a spectacle of disaster. Every town was sacked and burned. The people in the countryside and in the town were hunted and killed. Others were taken as prisoners to Cap Haitien. The things done to people was simply horrible, because it seem that the issue wasn't killing but rather torturing to death. It's said that ince Dessalines arrived in Cap Haitien abd realized there was no French ships heading to Haitian coastal towns to put in effect a French invasion of Haiti (the reason he hastily ordered the troops to return bsck to Haiti after subjecting Santo Domingo to a month long siege with the only thing keepin the city from falling was being surrounded by a wall -much of it still standing-, shut doors on the wall and the constant fighting from the French army which went ss far as placing canons on top of several churches and from there firing at the Haitian troops which were mostly in what is now the Gascue -sometimes written Gazcue- section. The city ended where the wall is, the rest was pastures and forests). Haitian historian Jean Price-Mars in his 2-volume book "La República de Haití y la República Dominicana" (originally published in French, then translated to Spanish) says thst upon becoming aware of that, Dessalines boasted his pride at causing the destruction and killings in the east. He thought that action would prevent the French from ever landing again on Hispaniola and subjecting Haiti, putting an end to its independence.

After that event, some Dominicans left the island for Puerto Rico or Cuba. Most townfolks went into the forest, which then covered most of the valleys. Others went up into the mountains, especially the Central Mountains, and founded new towns such Jarabacoa, Jánico, etc. From there they thought themselves safe if the Haitians invaded agsin and they were right, because the Haitian army never went into the mountains. In fact, during Dessalines destruction of the Cibao, Puerto Plata was spared due to the Northern Mountains that separates it from Santiago. Another group of Cibao survivors decided to head east and getaway from all the destruction, plus those places also reminded them of those things. They settled around Higüey and El Seibo. To this day, if you see a map of the Spanish language and the dialects in the DR, you will see the most of the north is shaded for the Cibaeño dialect which includes, among other things, the changing of the R for the I, so carne often becomes caine, correr becomes correi, amor becomes amoi. In the south of the island around Santo Domingo, one of the changes is the R for the L, similar to what is done in Puerto Rico. So, carne becomes calne, correr becomes correl, amor becomes amol. Heck, in Santo Domingo people call oranges china, like in Puerto Rico; but, in the Cibao it's simply naranja. In much of the east (Los Llanos) they have another tendency, but the area around Higüey and El Seibo is the only non-Cibao place which will have the Cibao shade. There often people speak like in the Cibao.

In 1809 the War of Reconquest tajes place with the help of Puerto Rico, which offered many military men and ammunition. This war was basically of Dominicans against French rule. All the misfortunes that took place with Dessalines et al the people considered it as a fault of the French. People thought the reason Dessalines invaded in the first place was because of a law the French created installing slavery again, but the new slaves were to be young Haitians captured in Haiti. The French governing class was increasing treating the Dominicans as second class citizens when, technically, it was the French on Dominican land and not the other way around. Once the hostilities started as many Dominicans that were exiled in neighboring Puerto Rico shoved there by all the commotions and disasters in the DR along with Puerto Rican troops (technically the Spanish army, but the soldiers were mostly native of Puerto Rico) had invaded via Boca de Yuma (today its between Punta Cana and La Romana more or less.) The French authorities went all out in their mistreatment of the Dominicans. It went as far as French General Barquie wrote a letter where he described Dominicans as a "bunch of ingrates." In the city of Santo Domingo, the French authorities controlled the food, so the French were given food first and if anything was leftover, then Dominicans get it. It's said that many Dominican men as head of their families, would literally kneel to the French on the street begging for some food to take to his family and it was like a plea fslling on deaf ears. Widespread hunger striked Dominicans in Santo Domingo, and trapped in the city because the French kept all the gates shut of the surrounding wall, many resorted to killing the dogs and the cats on the streets and in their homes in order to have something to eat. Even rats were hunted for the same purpose while the French authorities enjoyed an abundance of food.

General Ferrand went with a part of the French army to meant the Dominican invaders in Los Llanos and kill them all. Near El Seibo the Dominican/Puerto Rican invaders met with Ferrand's French army. The assault was extreme, but in the end the Dominicans side won by killing most of the French army. The Dominican side also had sone losses with Dominican and Puerto Rican soldiers killed. When General Ferrand saw what was happening and he saw the writting in the wall, he took his gun and commit suicide with a shot in the head. His head was cut by a Dominican general and the Dominican/Puerto Rican troops marched directly to Santo Domingo. The purpose of taking General Ferrand's head was to show General Barquie that Ferrand was dead and the Era of France in the DR was over.

When the Dominican/Puerto Rican troops arrived in Santo Domingo, they found themselves shutout as all the gates were closed and the French didn't open them. The Englishman William Walton was in Santo Domingo and notice the cruelty with which the French were treating the Dominicans. So he went to Kingston, Jamaica and returned to Santo Domingo with General Carmichel and a part of the English army stationed in Jamaica (composed of Englishmen and Jamaicans, many of the latter black slaves of the English) and joined the Dominican/Puerto Rican army, and took part in the siege of Santo Domingo. Eventually, General Barquier saw the writting on the wall and came to the conclusion that French rule on Hispaniola was over. He capitulated and the Dominican/Puerto Rican/English army entered the gates of the city. The Dominican dwellers that survived came out of their houses en masse as they saw the Dominican/Puerto Rican/English army entering the city. General Barquier along with the remainder of the French authorities marched to the port, got on a French boat and left. That was the end of French rule on Hispaniola. The Dominicans finished what many years before the Haitians started. The flag of Spain replaced the flag of France on top of the Torre del Homenaje in the Fortaleza Ozama and Spain was once again the owner of the Spanish part of the island.

Many of the Dominicans that were in exile in Puerto Rico returned, but other than that not much else happened to the Los Llanos area.

During the Haitian Domination which started on February 9, 1822 with the third Haitian invasion, this time lead by Jean Pierre Boyer, and lasted until February 27, 1844 there was some emigration, and in the 1820's the Haitian government had invited several thousands African Americans. These people were settled throughout the country, including Higüey. Some say the purpose was to darken the Dominican population. Most of them moved back to the USA since they were from cities like New York City, Baltimore, Charleston, etc and the biggest Dominican town was Santo Domingo with a few thousand people, no more than 30,000 for sure. The policies taken by the Haitian authorities under Boyer also made many to leave (his decision to close the university and many schools, thinking it was easier to rule a population without education than an educated one; the lack of recognition of Haiti by any country in the world; prohibiting the Spanish language; the sexual liberties of the Haitian soldiers stationed in every town on what still was a very religious Dominican population; etc caused displeasure among the Dominicans and these African Americans living among the Dominicans noticed that.

Independence is acheived in 1844, but demographically not much was happening in Los Llanos. From 1844 to 1856 there were four more Haitian invasions, with several of them the Haitian leader expressing that the Dominican population would be subjected to a massacre. However, they were defeated in every invasion and the Los Llanos never saw any of the Haitian soldiers. All battles took place west of Santiago in the north and west of El Número (between Azua and Baní) in the south. Many of the Dominicans that lived between those places and the border moved further east, causing a further depopulation along the border area. The invasions and there were many more squirmishes along the border affected their fields, livestock, homes, etc which were constantly interrupted or destroyed or stolen. Many people were also taken to Haiti as prisoners of war by the Haitian army. With the movement of these people further east, some settled in the Los Llanos area. However, most settled in the areas of Santiago, La Vega, San Francisco, Bonao and Santo Domingo.

Speed up to the final years of the 1870's, because it was in Los Llanos that the American by the name of William Bass bought some land with the intention of creating a sugarcane plantation that would sell all its sugar to the United States. At that time Cuba was the center of the global sugar production (something it was since Haiti became independent, in a way Cuba took Haiti's place in this.) However, Cuba was going through one of its wars and msny of the sugarcane plantation owners saw their fields burned and their sugar mills destroyed. In the US, for several years before there were articles that appeared in local newspapers concerning Los Llanos of the DR. It was the largest flat area in the Caribbean, just like much of Cuba, especially the sugar producing areas. A sparse population, almost all of it inland around Higüey and El Seibo, so from the sea it lookec as if the area was completely deserted. The biggest activity was cattle ranches snd even though these "hatos" were large, the vast majority of Los Llanos was natural wilderness with a scattered rural population that was encountered ocassional while travelling through the area. If you read descriptions done of the population in this area by Dominicans and foreigners, they often describe it as mostly mixed with a light brown color and whites scattered hear and there. This doesn't mean there weren't any blacks, because they have always been everywhere in the DR, just in this area it was a very small part of the population.

As the years passed, more Americans and Cubans went to Los Llanos are started their own sugarcane plantations. The Dominican government also encouraged this as the sugar business proved to be lucrative. There were some incentives placed such tax concessions for a few years after a sugar business was established. There were some non-Americans and non-Cubans that arrived in the country with the idea of starting their own sugarcane plantation. Some people from Puerto Rico (Serrallés, Marchena, etc) also arrived with that purpose, in fact a sugar mill created by a Puerto Rican near San Pedro de Macorís was named Central Puerto Rico. Also people from other parts such as Juan Vicini from Italy. American business interests in the sugar industry in nearby islands also expanded into Los Llanos. For example, the South Porto Rico Company which was a sugar business founded and owned by Americans had its sugarcane plantation in Puerto Rico with its mill at Central Guánica near the Puerto Rican town of the same name. Eventually, the company ranout of land and it needed to expand, so it bought some land near the Romana River in the DR (now called Dulce River) and it established a sugar plantation. The sugarcane was harvested and taken to the Central Guánica in Puerto Rico to convert it to sugar and molasses. From there it went to New York City to sell to American consumers to sweeten their coffee, bake sweets, make candy, etc. With time the sugar plantation that they created near the Romana River expanded and they established a sugar mill in an isolated place on the coast and named it Central Romana. In Boca Chica, which had hardly any people, a group of Spaniards, Arabs and Dominicans established a sugar mill called Central Boca Chica (now destroyed, the only thing left is the chimney which is visible from Boca Chica beach.) So on and so forth.

The Dominican sugar industry was created mostly by foreigners, overwhelmingly Americans and many of these families became very wealthy and many of their descendants live in mansions mostly in the suburbs of New York City (Westchester County, Fairfield County, Suffolk County, etc.) The workforce has always been foreigners too. In order to get Dominicans out of their farms, certain conditions needed to be met as incentives such as higher wages to name one. The DR didn't have a mass of unemployed or land shortage or anything of the sort. Anyone could go to some random place in the middle of nowhere and establish their own small fall for autoconsumption. The land and the climate was such thst for most things all that is needed is that is planted, nature tskes care of the rest and in a few weeks or months you have all sorts of foodstuff sprouting from the ground. Dominicans had few wants, life was simple, every belly went to sleep with a good meal produced in the backyard. But the Americans noticed that this wasn't entirely the case in neighboring Puerto Rico. So, rather than creating the incentives to attract Dominicans to the sugarcane fields, they decided to offer labor incentives on their terms and see if it attracts Puerto Ricans and for a time it did. Most sugarcane workers in the DR was Puerto Ricans and, in fact, the migration flow from Puerto Rico help estsblish new communities right on the Caribbean coast, such as San Pedro de Macorís. Also, many of the Puerto Ricans that owned sugar mills in Los Llanos used imported Puerto Rican labor. With time it was noted that Puerto Ricans didn't last in the sugar plantations and they would go to Santo Domingo or to Santiago or San Pedro de Macorís and dedicate to other labors such as a colmado, working at a hardware store, etc. Not only was this easier work, the pay was also higher. Puerto Ricans also were Spanish-speaker and that was great if the owners and management of the sugarmills were Puerto Ricans, Cubans or Spanish; but, not so great if they were English-speaking Americans.

William Bass, from Massachussetts, noticed that the English islands of Barbados, Saint Lucia, etc were overpopulated with a serious unemployment problem and they spoke English just like him and his management crew. He was the first to import what later would be called "Cocolos," that is blacks from the English Caribbean. Aside from the fact that they were very black, they also had English first and last names, spoke English and when they learn Spanish would speak it with an English accent. They also had certain culinary habits that were unknoen among Dominicans, nsmely a diet that had more seafood while the Dominican diet didn't had much seafood since the bulk of the population lived inland. They also had an unknown juice to Dominicans called Guavaberry.

Time went on and almost entirely the sugar industry remain owned mostly by Americans, it used a labor force imported from the English Caribbean, and it spread. Despite the bulk was in Los Llanos, there were areas near San Cristóbal and Baní, and around Barahona, around Santo Domingo (in fact, many areas that roday are an urbanized part of Santo Domingo were sugarcane plantations, the Central Ozama is a perfect example of a sugarmill that was close to the bank of the Ozama River in Santo Domingo, the sugarmill no longer exist and the entire area is urbanized.)

The use of imported labor from the English Caribbean came to a screeching halt in the 1920's. Cocolos went on strike demanding higher wages and better working conditions. The sugar industry was still overwhelmingly in American hands. Rather then complying with their demands, perhaps negotiating with them or even attempting to attract Dominicans (who wanted higher wages than the Cocolos, so that was not going to happen), the owners noticed that neighboring Haiti has a population surplus, a population with an increasing unemployment problem, and people that in general are docile. They also noticed that average wages in Haiti were lower than the wages the sugar companies they owned were paying in the DR. To make a long story short, the Cocolos were largely fired and replaced with Haitian workers. They didn't speak English like the owners, but at least they accept the wages and working conditions unlike at first the Dominicans, then the Puerto Ricans, and lastly the Cocolos.

During the Trujillo dictatorship a sort of Dominicanization occured in terms of ownership and management of the sugar mills. Trujillo's government was systemstically creating the conditions where a sugar mill would be subject to certain attacks on its reputation via newspaper articles and through the radio. Eventually, the sugar mils would be put on sale one by one and the buyer would be the Dominican government. His dictatorship started in 1930 when the Dominican government owned exactly 0 sugar mills. By the end in 1961 every sugar mill belong to the government except those owned by the Central Romana Corporation in La Romana (and already was being attacked in the media) owned by Americans and the sugar mills that belong to the Vicini's, who by that time was a Dominican family of Italian descent. All properties of the Trujillo family were confiscated by the Dominican government. If the government wanted to create a socialist revolution, it already owned most of the stuff. The Trujillo family owned most stuff or were a major figure in the stocks of companies they didn't own. It's said that when Trujillo was killed in 1961, he was the second or third richest man in the world. In Hollywood and Beverly Hills, California cars often had bumper stickers saying "This is not a gift from Trujillo," because his son Ramfis would go there on the family's yacht (now called the Saint Cloud and I think is part of a seacruise company from the USA, you should search a photo, this thing is huge for a yacht) and bestow upon the rich and famous women extremely expensive "gifts" such as new convertibles, homes, expenses dresses and jewelry, etc. That's how rich were the Trujillo.

Anyway, to end this long as heck post, Trujillo's companies were grouped in what was known as CORDE and they became government owned companies. Some such as Dominicana de Aviación went bankrupt. Others such as CODETEL were sold and after being resold several times, now is Claro. Some like Banreservas are still government owned and, in fact, that is one of the most profitable companies of the government. It's yearly income is of over US$1 billion. That's no typo, billion with a b. Most government owned sugar mills either went bankrupt, were sold to private companies, and others are in public-private partnerships. This is despite the fact thst when they were own by Trujillo, all of them ran efficiently and were profitable. Greed and corruption of sone people in government help destroyed many of these companies.

As for the demographis of the Los Llanos, well the population now concentrates in the Caribbean coast. It has become much darker and blacker. In many areas surrounding Higüey, El Seibo the average skin color lights up, psrticulsrly in certain rural areas, compared to places on the coast such as La Romana or Punta Cana. With this said, there is everything everywhere, the only thing thst changes is the proportion. In the La Romana area around 40% to 50% is now of full or part Haitian descent. The Arabs, who were mostly Christians from Lebanon, settled everywhere, but the center of this migration is San Pedro de Macorís. Though the bulk arrived between the 1880's to the 1920's, there is still a migration flow from Lebanon, Palestine and Syria to the DR, often attracted by family members, the typical chain migration thst forms all over the world. Some live in the USA and end up moving to the DR. You will never see an Arab or Dominican of Arab descent in poverty. All belong to the middle class and up. The current president is in part descended of Lebanese and his father (who immigrated from Lebanon to the DR) became a multimillionare. I think this is still the case, but the current Dominican president is the only one in the world with a Tesla. It even have the official presidential license place with starts with 01.

My goodness, this has to be the longest post in the history of City-Data.
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Old 11-05-2021, 04:23 AM
 
1,223 posts, read 722,591 times
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The Diamantina Dover ( written by Hugh McDonald, performed by John Williamson )

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GfvlGFVKZw0
Six Decks To Darwin ( written and performed by Ryan Garland )

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fJqFiuZqTHQ&t=58s
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Old 11-05-2021, 07:54 AM
 
Location: Round Rock, Texas
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Spanish legacy in Texas...

Last edited by ScoPro; 12-30-2021 at 02:12 PM..
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Old 11-05-2021, 08:23 AM
 
Location: London, UK
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Quote:
Originally Posted by AntonioR View Post
Part 2
Thanks for answering but any chance of reducing that dissertation somewhat and keeping on-topic please?
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Old 11-05-2021, 09:45 AM
 
Location: Somewhere on the Moon.
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Pueblofuerte View Post
Thanks for answering but any chance of reducing that dissertation somewhat and keeping on-topic please?
You mean like taking a photo of a copy of a map from 1858 to answer your post from the page before?

Something like this?



Or to hope someone would create a an article on Wikipedia or somewhere else on the internet about Los Llanos of the DR (the center if country in the country where cowboyism started in the Americas) and simply posting the link here?
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Old 11-05-2021, 09:59 AM
 
Location: Somewhere on the Moon.
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Perhaps citing a map that is available online (though the map is from 1784, about 237 years ago and says "The French Part" and "The Spanish Part"), like this one.


El mapa de 1784 y el origen del nombre La Romana

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Old 11-05-2021, 01:34 PM
 
Location: London, UK
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Quote:
Originally Posted by AntonioR View Post


Or to hope someone would create a an article on Wikipedia or somewhere else on the internet about Los Llanos of the DR (the center if country in the country where cowboyism started in the Americas) and simply posting the link here?
Maybe you should create a Wikipedia page instead of filling this thread with off-topic or loosely related info at best. My request was that you edit down your post.

Also it should also be said is that horses are native to the Americas. The myth that horses didn’t exist on the supercontinent have been debunked. Horses were a sign of human advancement and development and it wasn’t in Europe’s interest to say that some Native American peoples had horses. When it comes to cattle or cowboy culture fair enough BUT Spain never introduced or re-introduced the horse to the Americas.
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Old 11-05-2021, 01:38 PM
 
Location: London, UK
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Quote:
Originally Posted by greysrigging View Post
The Diamantina Dover ( written by Hugh McDonald, performed by John Williamson )

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GfvlGFVKZw0
Six Decks To Darwin ( written and performed by Ryan Garland )

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fJqFiuZqTHQ&t=58s
How well known is Cowboy country/culture known or in the national psyche of Australia?

I must say New Zealand is so well known for sheep farming and lamb but I’ve heard little about Australian cowboy culture.
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Old 11-05-2021, 01:45 PM
 
Location: Somewhere on the Moon.
10,084 posts, read 14,952,774 times
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Pueblofuerte View Post
Maybe you should create a Wikipedia page instead of filling this thread with off-topic or loosely related info at best. My request was that you edit down your post.
As anyone can see, there is nothing "out of topic" about a response to a post you youself made. If you didn't want a response, then it would had been best to never post an inquiry in the first place.

I know you have a need to be the last person to say something in any discussion as is clear through your participation the forums here, but you should refrain from inventing this. Now go ahead and have the last word, is to be expected given your history here.

Quote:
Originally Posted by Pueblofuerte
Also it should also be said is that horses are native to the Americas. The myth that horses didn’t exist on the supercontinent have been debunked. Horses were a sign of human advancement and development and it wasn’t in Europe’s interest to say that some Native American peoples had horses. When it comes to cattle or cowboy culture fair enough BUT Spain never introduced or re-introduced the horse to the Americas.
What ever you say. In the mean time…

Quote:
It is well known that domesticated horses were introduced into North America beginning with the Spanish conquest, and that escaped horses subsequently spread throughout the American Great Plains. Customarily, such wild horses that survive today are designated "feral" and regarded as intrusive, exotic animals, unlike the native horses that died out at the end of the Pleistocene. But as E. caballus, they are not so alien after all. The fact that horses were domesticated before they were reintroduced matters little from a biological viewpoint. Indeed, domestication altered them little, as we can see by how quickly horses revert to ancient behavioral patterns in the wild.
https://www.livescience.com/9589-sur...ld-horses.html

I guess this smilie can be here too.
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Old 11-05-2021, 03:02 PM
 
Location: Gatineau, Québec
26,876 posts, read 38,019,680 times
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I live in Québec, Canada and we have a country-cowboy subculture that's not mainstream but it's bigger than one might think. We don't have vast plains here with endless vistas, so a lot of the stuff is imported US imagery, often translated into French.

Here is a video from what is by far the biggest festival which is definitely American-style, though perhaps with better cheese and more wine.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RSI2FBmboeo

We do have our own original country music in French, and some songs are very well known even the majority of us who aren't really country music fans.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6I5rzrfoce4


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ex69R9gpNnc
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