The large sums generated by the sale of oil leases and by oil and gas royalties make Alaska's tax structure highly atypical, and its revenues dependent upon the market price of fuels. To smooth out fluctuations due to oil price changes, the Constitutional Budget Reserve Fund was set up. There is no state sales tax or personal income tax in Alaska, but some localities impose a sales tax, as well as a property tax. The corporate tax rate in 2000 ranged from 1% on the first $10,000 of taxable income to 9.4% on amounts over $90,000. Selective sales taxes (excises) are imposed on tobacco products, motor fuels, insurance premiums, alcoholic beverages, public utilities and amusements. The state property tax excludes the first $150, 000 for owners over 65. Only 25 of Alaska's 161 municipalities collect local property taxes. There is no death tax, and Alaska's estate tax is tied to the federal tax exemption for state estate taxes, and is therefore scheduled to be phase out in tandem with the exemption by 2007. Other taxes include various license and franchise fees, but there is no fee for vehicle operating licenses. There are also no documentary and stock transfer taxes. The most unique feature about Alaska's state taxes is that over half ($552 million in 2002 amounting to 50.6% of total state tax collections) come from severance taxes, a very minor source of revenue in most states. Alaska is the only state that has neither a state sales tax nor a state personal income tax. Corporate income taxes make an unusually high contribution, amounting to almost 25% in 2002. Excise taxes accounted for 13%, license fees for 6.8% and property taxes for 4.5%. In all, Alaska has the lowest combined state and local tax burden in the country, 5.5% of income in 2003, compared to the national average of 9.7%.
The following table from the US Census Bureau provides a summary of taxes collected by the state in 2002.
|Sales and gross receipts||142,050||220.65|
|General sales and gross receipts||(X)||(X)|
|Selective sales taxes||142,050||220.65|
|Other selective sales||(X)||(X)|
|Hunting and fishing||20,351||31.61|
|Motor vehicle operators||(X)||(X)|
|Occupation and business, NEC||11,137||17.3|
|Corporation net income||269,273||418.26|
|Death and gift||3,117||4.84|
|Documentary and stock transfer||(X)||(X)|