State of Arkansas



ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: French derivation of Akansas or Arkansas, a name given to the Quapaw Indians by other tribes. NICKNAME: The Natural State. CAPITAL: Little Rock. ENTERED THE UNION: 15 June 1836 (25th). SONG: "Arkansas." MOTTO: Regnat populus (The people rule). COAT OF ARMS: In front of an American eagle is a shield displaying a steamboat, plow, beehive, and sheaf of wheat, symbols of Arkansas's industrial and agricultural wealth. The angel of mercy, the goddess of liberty encircled by 13 stars, and the sword of justice surround the eagle, which holds in its talons an olive branch and three arrows and in its beak a banner bearing the state motto. FLAG: On a red field, 25 stars on a blue band border a white diamond containing the word "Arkansas" and four blue stars. OFFICIAL SEAL: Coat of arms surrounded by the words "Great Seal of the State of Arkansas." BIRD: Mockingbird. INSECT: Honeybee. FLOWER : Apple blossom. TREE: Pine. GEM: Diamond. LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Robert E. Lee's birthday, 19 January; Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr., 3rd Monday in January; George Washington's Birthday, 3rd Monday in February; Memorial Day, last Monday in May, Independence Day, 4 July; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Veterans Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November; Christmas Eve, 24 December; Christmas Day, 25 December. TIME: 6 AM CST = noon GMT.


Alampi, Gary, ed. Gale State Rankings Reporter. Detroit: Gale Research, Inc., 1994.

Angelou, Maya. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings . New York: Bantam, 1971.

Arkansas, University of. Industrial Research and Extension Center. Arkansas State and County Economic Data . Little Rock: University of Arkansas, 1984.

Council of State Governments. The Book of the States, 1994–1995 Edition. Vol. 30. Lexington, Ky.: The Council of State Governments, 1994.

FDIC, Division of Research and Statistics. Statistics on Banking: A Statistical Profile of the United States Banking Industry. Washington, D.C.: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, 1993.

Federal Writers' Project. Arkansas: A Guide to the State . 1941. Reprint, New York: Somerset, n.d.

Fletcher, John Gould. Arkansas. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1989.

Gatewood, Willard B., and Jeannie Whayne, ed. The Arkansas Delta: Land of Paradox. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1993.

Hamilton, Nigel. Bill Clinton: An American Journey. New York: Random House, 2003.

Lankford, George E., ed. Bearing Witness: Memories of Arkansas Slavery Narratives from the 1930s WPA Collections. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2003.

McDougal, Jim and Curtis Wilkie. Arkansas Mischief: the Birth of a National Scandal. New York: Henry Holt, 1998.

Paulson, Alan C. Roadside History of Arkansas. Missoula, Mont.: Mountain Press Pub., 1998.

Polakow, Amy. Daisy Bates: Civil Rights Crusader. North Haven, Conn.: Linnet Books, 2003.

Ross, Margaret. Arkansas Gazette: The Early Years, 1819–66 . Little Rock: Arkansas Gazette Foundation, 1969.

Schmittroth, Linda, and Mary Kay Rosteck, ed. Cities of the United States. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale Research, Inc., 1994.

Streb, Matthew J. The New Electoral Politics of Race. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2002.

Taylor, Orville, W. Negro Slavery in Arkansas . Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1958.

US Department of the Interior, US Fish and Wildlife Service. Endangered and Threatened Species Recovery Program. Washington, D.C.: US Government Printing Office, 1990.

Whayne, Jeannie M. A New Plantation South: Land, Labor, and Federal Favor in Twentieth–Century Arkansas. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1996.

Williams, C. Filed. A Documentary History of Arkansas . Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1983.

Woodruff, Nan Elizabeth. American Congo: The African American Freedom Struggle in the Delta. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2003.