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State of Colorado



ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: From the Spanish word colorado, meaning red or reddish brown. NICKNAME: The Centennial State. CAPITAL : Denver. ENTERED UNION: 1 August 1876 (38th). SONG: "Where the Columbines Grow." MOTTO: Nil sine numine (Nothing without providence). COAT OF ARMS: The upper portion of a heraldic shield shows three snow-capped mountains surrounded by clouds; the lower portion has a miner's pick and shovel, crossed. Above the shield are an eye of God and a Roman fasces, symbolizing the republican form of government; the state motto is below. FLAG: Superimposed on three equal horizontal hands of blue, white, and blue is a large red "C" encircling a golden disk. OFFICIAL SEAL: The coat of arms surrounded by the words "State of Colorado 1876." ANIMAL: Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep. BIRD: Lark bunting. FLOWER: Columbine. TREE: Blue spruce. GEM: Aquamarine. FOSSIL: Stegasaurus. LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr., 3rd Monday in January; Lincoln's Birthday, 12 February; Washington's Birthday, 3rd Monday in February; Memorial Day, last Monday in May; Independence Day, 4 July; Colorado Day, 1st Monday in August; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Columbus Day, 2nd Monday in October; Election Day, 1st Tuesday after 1st Monday in November in even-numbered years; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November; Christmas Day, 25 December. TIME: 5 AM MST = noon GMT.


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Federal Writers' Project. Colorado:A Guide to the Highest State . Reprint. New York: Somerset, 1987 (orig. 1941).

Harris, Katherine. Long Vistas: Women and Families on Colorado Homesteads. Niwot, Colo.: University of Colorado Press, 1993.

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Mahoney, Paul F., Thomas J. Noel, and Richard E. Stevens. Historical Atlas of Colorado. Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 1994.

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Wyckoff, William. Creating Colorado: the Making of a Western American Landscape, 1860–1940. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999.