District of Columbia
ORIGIN OF NAME: From "Columbia," a name commonly applied to the United States in the late 18th century, ultimately deriving from Christopher Columbus. BECAME US CAPITAL: 1 December 1800. MOTTO: Justitia omnibus (Justice for all). FLAG: The flag, based on George Washington's coat of arms, consists of three red stars above two horizontal red stripes on a white field. OFFICIAL SEAL: In the background, the Potomac River separates the District of Columbia from the Virginia shore, over which the sun is rising. In the foreground, Justice, holding a wreath and a tablet with the word "Constitution," stands beside a statue of George Washington. To her left is the Capitol; to her right, an eagle and various agricultural products. Below is the District motto and the date 1871; above are the words "District of Columbia." BIRD: Wood thrush. FLOWER: American beauty rose. TREE: Scarlet oak. LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr., 3rd Monday in January; Washington's Birthday, 3rd Monday in February; Memorial Day, last Monday in May; Independence Day, 4 July; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Columbus Day, 2nd Monday in October; Veterans Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November; Christmas Day, 25 December. TIME: 7 am EST = noon GMT.
Allen, Thomas B. The Washington Monument: It Stands for All. New York: Discovery Books, 2000.
Caroli, Betty Boyd. Inside the White House: America's Most Famous Home. Pleasantville, N.Y.: Reader's Digest Association, Inc., 1999.
Cary, Francine Curro, ed. Urban Odyssey: A Multicultural History of Washington, D.C. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1996.
Federal Writer's Project. Washington, D.C.: A City and Capital. Reprint. New York: Somerset, n.d. (orig. 1942).
Goode, James M. Capital Losses: A Cultural History of Washington's Destroyed Buildings. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books, 2003.
Greene, Constance M. Washington: A History of the Capital. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1976.
Gurney, Gene, and Harold Wise. The Official Washington, D.C., Directory. New York: Crown, 1977.
Gutheim, Frederick. Worthy of the Nation: The Planning and Development of the National Capital City. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian, 1977.
Katharine Graham's Washington. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2002.
Lewis, David L. District of Columbia: A Bicentennial History. New York: Norton, 1976.
Moore, John L. Speaking of Washington: Facts, Firsts, and Folklore. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1993.
Shidler, Atlee E. Trends and Issues in the Greater Washington Region: A Preliminary Report. Washington, D.C.: Center for Municipal and Metropolitan Research, 1979.