State of Louisiana

ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: Named in 1682 for France's King Louis XIV. NICKNAME: The Pelican State. CAPITAL: Baton Rouge. ENTERED UNION: 30 April 1812 (18th). SONGS: "Give Me Louisiana" and "You are My Sunshine." MOTTO: Union, Justice, and Confidence. COLORS: Gold, white, and blue. FLAG: On a blue field, a white pelican feeds her three young, symbolizing the state providing for its citizens; the state motto is inscribed on a white ribbon. OFFICIAL SEAL: A pelican, with its head turned to the left, sits in a nest with three young. Around the inner circle are inscribed "Union," "Justice," and under the nest, "Confidence." BIRD: Eastern brown pelican. CRUSTACEAN: Crawfish. DOG: Catahoula leopard. FLOWER: Magnolia. WILDFLOWER: Louisiana iris. TREE: Bald cypress. GEM: Agate. FOSSIL: Petrified palmwood. INSECT: Honeybee. LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Battle of New Orleans Day, 8 January; Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr., 3rd Monday in January; Robert E. Lee's Birthday, 19 January; Washington's Birthday, 3rd Monday in February; Good Friday, March or April; National Memorial Day, last Monday in May; Confederate Memorial Day and Jefferson Davis's Birthday, 3 June; Independence Day, 4 July; Huey Long's Birthday, 30 August, by proclamation of the governor; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Columbus Day, 2nd Monday in October; All Saints' Day, 1 November; Veterans Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November; Christmas Day, 25 December. Legal holidays in New Orleans, Jefferson, St. Bernard, St. Charles, and East Baton Rouge parishes also include Mardi Gras, February or March. TIME: 6 AM CST = noon GMT.


Ayres, Thomas. Dark and Bloody Ground: The Battle of Mansfield and the Forgotten Civil War in Louisiana. Dallas: Taylor, 2001.

Bell, Caryn Cossé. Revolution, Romanticism, and the Afro-Creole Protest Tradition in Louisiana, 1718–1868. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1997.

Fairclough, Adam. Race & Democracy: The Civil Rights Struggle in Louisiana, 1915–1972. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1995.

Hair, William Ivy. Bourbonism and Agrarian Protest in Louisiana,1877–1900 . Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1965.

Jackson, Joy. New Orleans in the Gilded Age: Politics and Urban Progress, 1880–96. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1969.

Klier, Betje Black. Pavie in the Borderlands: The Journey of Théodore Pavie to Louisiana and Texas, 1829–1830. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2000.

Louisiana, State of. Secretary of State. Roster of Officials, 1997. Baton Rouge, 1997.

Louisiana Almanac, 1997–98. Gretna, La.: Pelican Publishing Co., 1997.

McAuliffe, Emily. Louisiana Facts and Symbols. Mankato, Minn.: Hilltop Books, 1999.

Schafer, Judith Kelleher. Slavery, the Civil Law, and the Supreme Court of Louisiana. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1994.

Shugg, Roger W. Origins of Class Struggle in Louisiana: A Social History of White Farmers and Laborers During Slavery and After, 1840–75. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1968 (orig. 1939).

Taylor, Joe Gray. Louisiana: A Bicentennial History. New York: Norton, 1976.

——. Louisiana Reconstructed, 1863–77. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1974.

Tregle, Joseph George. Louisiana in the Age of Jackson: A Clash of Cultures and Personalities. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1999.

Williams, T. Harry. Huey Long, New York: Random House, 1981.

Winters, John D. The Civil War in Louisiana. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1979.