Various species of pine—among them the single-leaf pinon, the state tree—dominate Nevada's woodlands. Creosote bush is common in southern Nevada, as are many kinds of sagebrush throughout the state. Wildflowers include shooting star and white and yellow violets. Eight plant species were listed as threatened or endangered in 2003. Endangered species that year were Amargosa niterwort and steamboat buckwheat.
Native mammals include the black bear, white-tailed and mule deer, pronghorn antelope, Rocky Mountain elk, cottontail rabbit, and river otter. Grouse, partridge, pheasant, and quail are the leading game birds, and a diversity of trout, char, salmon, and whitefish thrive in Nevada waters. Rare and protected reptiles are the Gila monster and desert tortoise. The US Fish and Wildlife Service listed 30 Nevada animal species as threatened or endangered in 2003, including the desert tortoise, six species of dace, three species of pupfish, woundfin, and three species of chub.