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PENNSYLVANIA

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania

ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: Named for Admiral William Penn, father of the founder of Pennsylvania. NICKNAME: The Keystone State. CAPITAL: Harrisburg. ENTERED UNION: 12 December 1787 (2nd). SONG: "Pennsylvania." MOTTO: Virtue, Liberty and Independence. COAT OF ARMS: A shield supported by two horses displays a sailing ship, a plow, and three sheaves of wheat; an eagle forms the crest. Beneath the shield an olive branch and a cornstalk are crossed and below them is the state motto. FLAG: The coat of arms appears in the center of a blue field. OFFICIAL SEAL: obverse: A shield displays a sailing ship, a plow, and three sheaves of wheat with a cornstalk to the left, an olive branch to the right, and an eagle above, surrounded by the inscription "Seal of the State of Pennsylvania." reverse: A woman representing Liberty holds a wand topped by a liberty cap in her left hand and a drawn sword in her right as she tramples a lion representing Tyranny; the legend "Both Can't Survive" encircles the design. ANIMAL: White-tailed deer. BIRD: Ruffed grouse. DOG: Great Dane. FISH: Brook trout. INSECT: Firefly. FLOWER: Mountain laurel. TREE: Hemlock. BEAUTIFICATION AND CONSERVATION PLANT: Penngift crownvetch. BEVERAGE: Milk. FOSSIL: Phacops rana. LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr., 3rd Monday in January; Presidents' Day, 3rd Monday in February; Memorial Day, last Monday in May; Flag Day, 14 June; Independence Day, 4 July; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Columbus Day, 2nd Monday in October; Veterans Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November; Christmas Day, 25 December. TIME: 7 AM EST = noon GMT.

50 BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Binder, Frederick Moor. Coal Age Empire: Pennsylvania Coal and its Utilization to 1860. Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. 1974

Blockson, Charles L. African Americans in Pennsylvania: A History and Guide. Baltimore: Black Classic, 1994.

Bremer, Francis J., and Dennis B. Downey (ed.). A Guide to the History of Pennsylvania. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1994.

Bridenbaugh, Carl. Cities in Revolt: Urban Life in America, 1743–76. New York: Knopf, 1955.

Cochran, Thomas C. Pennsylvania: A Bicentennial History. New York: Norton, 1978.

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Bureau of Statistics. Research, and Planning. 1984 Pennsylvania Statistical Abstract. 26th ed. Harrisburg, 1984.

Federal Writers' Project. Pennsylvania: A Guide to the Keystone State. Reprint. New York: Somerset, 1980 (orig. 1940).

Klein, Philip S., and Ari Hoogenboom. A History of Pennsylvania. Rev. ed. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1980.

Miller, Arthur P., Jr., and Marjorie L. Miller. Pennsylvania Battlefields and Military Landmarks. Mechanicsburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 2000.

Miller, E. Willard, ed. A Geography of Pennsylvania. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995.

Murphy, Raymond E., and Marion Murphy. Pennsylvania: A Regional Geography. Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Book Service, 1937.

Pennsylvania, Commonwealth of. Department of General Services. The Pennsylvania Manual, 1995. Vol 112. Harrisburg, 1995.

Pennsylvania Chamber of Commerce. Pennsylvania Government Today. State College, Pa: Pennsylvania Valley Publishers, 1973.

Root, Douglas. Pennsylvania. Oakland, Calif.: Compass American Guides, 2000.

Soderland, Jean R., and Richard S. Dunn (eds.). William Penn and the Founding of Pennsylvania, 1680–1684: A Documentary History. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983.

Wallace, Paul A. W. Pennsylvania: Seed of a Nation. New York: Harper & Row, 1962.