Texas - Ethnic groups



As white settlers pushed toward Texas during the 19th century, many Indian groups moved west and south into the region. The most notable tribes were the Comanche, Wichita, Kiowa, Apache, Choctaw, and Cherokee. Also entering in significant numbers were the Kickapoo and Potawatomi from Illinois, the Delaware and Shawnee from Missouri, the Quapaw from Arkansas, and the Creek from Alabama and Georgia. One of the few Texas tribes that has survived to the present time as an identifiable group is the Alabama-Coushatta, who inhabit a 4,351-acre (1,761-hectare) reservation in Polk County, 90 mi (145 km) northeast of Houston. The Tigua, living in Texas since the 1680s, were recognized by a federal law in 1968 that transferred all responsibility for them to the state of Texas. The two Indian reservations number about 500 persons each. Overall, at the 2000 census, there were 118,362 American Indians living in Texas.

Blacks have been integral to the history of Texas ever since a black Moor named Estevanico was shipwrecked near present-day Galveston in 1528. By 1860, Texas had 182,921 blacks, or 30% of the total population, of whom only 355 were free. Once emancipated, blacks made effective use of the franchise, electing two of their number to the state senate and nine to the house in 1868. After the return of the Democratic Party to political dominance, however, the power of blacks steadily diminished. Since then, their numbers have grown, but their proportion of the total population has dwindled, although Houston and Dallas were, respectively, about 25% and 26% black at the 2000 census. In 2000, 2,404,566 blacks lived in the state, which ranked 2nd behind New York in the size of its black population.

Hispanics and Latinos, the largest minority in Texas, numbered 6,669,666 in 2000, representing 32% of the population, an increase over 1990, when Texans of Hispanic origin represented 25.5% of the total. Mostly of Mexican ancestry, they are nevertheless a heterogeneous group, divided by history, geography, and economic circumstances. Hispanics have been elected to the state legislature and to the US Congress. In 1980, the Houston independent school district, the state's largest, reported more Hispanic students than Anglos for the first time in its history.

Altogether, Texas has nearly 30 identifiable ethnic groups. Certain areas of central Texas are heavily Germanic and Czech. The first permanent Polish colony in the US was established at Panna Maria, near San Antonio, in 1854. Texas has one of the largest colonies of Wends in the world, principally at Serbin in central Texas. Significant numbers of Danes, Swedes, and Norwegians have also settled in Texas.

Texas Counties, County Seats, and County Areas and Populations
Texas Counties, County Seats, and County Areas and Populations

Texas Counties, County Seats, and County Areas and Populations

COUNTY COUNTY SEAT LAND AREA (SQ MI) POPULATION (2002 EST.) COUNTY COUNTY SEAT LAND AREA (SQ MI) POPULATION (2002 EST.)
Anderson Palestine 1,077 54,585 Duval San Diego 1,795 12,811
Andrews Andrews 1,501 12,951 Eastland Eastland 924 18,210
Angelina Lufkin 807 80,582 Ector Odessa 903 122,312
Aransas Rockport 280 22,928 Edwards Rocksprings 2,120 2,081
Archer Archer City 907 8,996 Ellis Waxahachie 939 120,052
Armstrong Claude 910 2,145 El Paso El Paso 1,014 697,562
Atascosa Jourdanton 1,218 40,948 Erath Stephenville 1,080 33,077
Austin Bellville 656 24,596 Falls Marlin 770 18,091
Bailey Muleshoe 827 6,480 Fannin Bonham 895 31,672
Bandera Bandera 793 19,153 Fayette La Grange 950 22,304
Bastrop Bastrop 895 63,934 Fisher Roby 897 4,246
Baylor Seymour 862 3,929 Floyd Floydada 992 7,455
Bee Beeville 880 32,277 Foard Crowell 703 1,545
Bell Belton 1,055 244,668 Ft. Bend Richmond 876 399,537
Bexar San Antonio 1,248 1,446,333 Franklin Mt. Vernon 294 9,699
Blanco Johnson City 714 8,866 Freestone Fairfield 888 18,595
Borden Gail 900 701 Frio Pearsall 1,133 16,249
Bosque Meridian 989 17,535 Gaines Seminole 1,504 14,312
Bowie Boston 891 89,894 Galveston Galveston 399 261,219
Brazoria Angleton 1,407 257,256 Garza Post 895 4,976
Brazos Bryan 588 156,099 Gillespie Fredericksburg 1,061 21,607
Brewster Alpine 6,169 9,009 Glasscock Garden City 900 1,369
Briscoe Silverton 887 1,716 Goliad Goliad 859 7,075
Brooks Falfurrias 942 7,766 Gonzales Gonzales 1,068 18,884
Brown Brownwood 936 37,957 Gray Pampa 921 22,088
Burleson Caldwell 668 16,874 Grayson Sherman 934 113,860
Burnet Burnet 994 36,889 Gregg Longview 273 113,255
Caldwell Lockhart 546 35,050 Grimes Anderson 799 24,740
Calhoun Port Lavaca 540 20,595 Guadalupe Seguin 713 94,215
Callahan Baird 899 12,762 Hale Plainview 1,005 35,900
Cameron Brownsville 905 353,561 Hall Memphis 876 3,662
Camp Pittsburg 203 11,643 Hamilton Hamilton 836 8,079
Carson Panhandle 924 6,582 Hansford Spearman 921 5,288
Cass Linden 937 30,133 Hardeman Quanah 688 4,490
Castro Dimmitt 899 8,075 Hardin Kountze 898 48,988
Chambers Anahuac 616 27,244 Harris Houston 1,734 3,557,055
Cherokee Rusk 1,052 47,450 Harrison Marshall 908 62,534
Childress Childress 707 7,571 Hartley Channing 1,462 5,464
Clay Henrietta 1,085 11,396 Haskell Haskell 901 5,909
Cochran Morton 775 3,482 Hays San Marcos 678 109,570
Coke Robert Lee 908 3,844 Hemphill Canadian 903 3,332
Coleman Coleman 1,277 8,906 Henderson Athens 888 75,797
Collin McKenney 851 566,798 Hidalgo Edinburg 1,569 614,474
Collingsworth Wellington 909 3,103 Hill Hillsboro 968 33,701
Colorado Columbus 964 20,384 Hockley Levelland 908 22,838
Comal New Braunfels 555 85,109 Hood Granbury 425 44,149
Comanche Comanche 930 13,565 Hopkins Sulphur Springs 789 32,299
Concho Paint Rock 992 3,854 Houston Crockett 1,234 23,225
Cooke Gainesville 893 37,634 Howard Big Spring 901 33,215
Coryell Gatesville 1,057 74,495 Hudspeth Sierra Blanca 4,566 3,341
Cottle Paducah 895 1,797 Hunt Greenville 840 79,361
Crane Crane 782 3,874 Hutchinson Stinnett 871 23,061
Crockett Ozona 2,806 3,807 Irion Mertzon 1,052 1,757
Crosby Crosbyton 898 6,865 Jack Jacksboro 920 8,965
Culberson Van Horn 3,815 2,839 Jackson Edna 844 14,364
Dallam Dalhart 1,505 6,184 Jasper Jasper 921 35,776
Dallas Dallas 880 2,283,953 Jeff Davis Ft. Davis 2,258 2,211
Dawson Lamesa 903 14,712 Jefferson Beaumont 937 248,890
Deaf Smith Hereford 1,497 18,396 Jim Hogg Hebbronville 1,136 5,173
Delta Cooper 278 5,362 Jim Wells Alice 867 39,945
Denton Denton 911 488,481 Johnson Cleburne 731 136,332
DeWitt Cuero 910 20,067 Jones Anson 931 20,284
Dickens Dickens 907 2,702 Karnes Karnes City 753 15,411
Dimmet Carrizo Springs 1,307 10,200 Kaufman Kaufman 788 77,954
Donley Clarendon 929 3,887 Kendall Boerne 663 25,390

Texas Counties, County Seats, and County Areas and Populations
Texas Counties, County Seats, and County Areas and Populations

Texas Counties, County Seats, and County Areas and Populations

COUNTY COUNTY SEAT LAND AREA (SQ MI) POPULATION (2002 EST.) COUNTY COUNTY SEAT LAND AREA (SQ MI) POPULATION (2002 EST.)
Kenedy Sarita 1,389 419 Refugio Refugio 771 7,724
Kent Jayton 878 807 Roberts Miami 915 857
Kerr Kerrville 1,107 44,857 Robertson Franklin 864 16,044
Kimble Junction 1,250 4,502 Rockwall Rockwall 128 50,858
King Guthrie 914 333 Runnels Ballinger 1,056 11,123
Kinney Brackettville 1,359 3,447 Rusk Henderson 932 47,541
Kleberg Kingsville 853 31,145 Sabine Hemphill 486 10,370
Knox Benjamin 845 4,061 San Augustine San Augustine 524 8,922
Lamar Paris 919 49,079 San Jacinto Coldspring 572 23,247
Lamb Littlefield 1,013 14,662 San Patricio Sinton 693 67,492
Lampasas Lampasas 714 18,846 San Saba San Saba 1,136 6,148
La Salle Cotulla 1,517 5,876 Schleicher Eldorado 1,309 2,944
Lavaca Hallettsville 971 18,935 Scurry Snyder 900 15,877
Lee Giddings 631 16,329 Shackelford Albany 915 3,338
Leon Centerville 1,078 15,885 Shelby Center 791 25,439
Liberty Liberty 1,174 73,739 Sherman Stratford 923 3,285
Limestone Groesbeck 931 22,263 Smith Tyler 932 181,437
Lipscomb Lipscomb 933 3,103 Somervell Glen Rose 188 7,224
Live Oak George West 1,057 12,014 Starr Rio Grande City 1,226 56,686
Llano Llano 939 17,758 Stephens Breckenridge 894 9,453
Loving Mentone 671 64 Sterling Sterling City 923 1,346
Lubbock Lubbock 900 247,574 Stonewall Aspermont 925 1,493
Lynn Tahoka 888 6,325 Sutton Sonora 1,455 4,117
McCulloch Brady 1,071 7,885 Swisher Tulia 902 8,082
McLennan Waco 1,031 217,713 Tarrant Ft. Worth 868 1,527,366
McMullen Tilden 1,163 856 Taylor Abilene 917 125,647
Madison Madisonville 473 13,105 Terrell Sanderson 2,357 988
Marion Jefferson 385 11,081 Terry Brownfield 886 12,723
Martin Stanton 914 4,673 Throckmorton Throckmorton 912 1,711
Mason Mason 934 3,771 Titus Mt. Pleasant 412 28,405
Matagorda Bay City 1,127 37,954 Tom Green San Angelo 1,515 103,018
Maverick Eagle Pass 1,287 48,651 Travis Austin 989 850,813
Medina Hondo 1,331 40,924 Trinity Groveton 692 14,088
Menard Menard 902 2,329 Tyler Woodville 922 20,743
Midland Midland 902 117,669 Upshur Gilmer 587 36,499
Milam Cameron 1,019 24,880 Upton Rankin 1,243 3,287
Mills Goldthwaite 748 5,133 Uvalde Uvalde 1,564 26,508
Mitchell ColoradoCity 912 9,348 Val Verde Del Rio 3,150 45,903
Montague Montague 928 19,237 Van Zandt Canton 855 50,124
Montgomery Conroe 1,047 328,449 Victoria Victoria 887 84,932
Moore Dumas 905 20,350 Walker Huntsville 786 62,388
Morris Daingerfield 256 13,240 Waller Hempstead 514 34,057
Motley Matador 959 1,336 Ward Monahans 836 10,507
Nacogdoches Nacogdoches 939 59,514 Washington Brenham 610 30,626
Navarro Corsicana 1,068 46,792 Webb Laredo 3,363 207,611
Newton Newton 935 14,946 Wharton Wharton 1,086 41,329
Nolan Sweetwater 915 15,172 Wheeler Wheeler 905 5,022
Nueces Corpus Christi 847 314,696 Wichita Wichita Falls 606 129,964
Ochiltree Perryton 919 9,048 Wilbarger Vernon 947 14,027
Oldham Vega 1,485 2,156 Willacy Raymondville 589 19,990
Orange Orange 362 84,364 Williamson Georgetown 1,137 289,924
Palo Pinto Palo Pinto 949 27,306 Wilson Floresville 807 34,548
Panola Carthage 812 22,734 Winkler Kermit 840 6,892
Parker Weatherford 902 94,618 Wise Decatur 902 52,926
Parmer Farwell 885 9,877 Wood Quitman 689 38,053
Pecos Ft. Stockton 4,776 16,421 Yoakum Plains 800 7,305
Polk Livingston 1,061 44,449 Young Graham 919 17,725
Potter Amarillo 902 116,093 Zapata Zapata 999 12,788
Presidio Marfa 3,857 7,681 Zavala Crystal City 1,298 11,556
Rains Emory 243 10,236     ————— ——————
Randall Canyon 917 106,822 totals   262,017 21,779,893
Reagan Big Lake 1,173 3,182        
Real Leakey 697 2,999        
Red River Clarksville 1,054 13,941        
Reeves Pecos 2,626 12,478        

As of 2000, foreign-born Texans numbered 2,899,642 (13.9% of the total population). In the same year, Asians numbered 562,319 (the 3rd-largest Asian population among the 50 states). The 2000 census counted 105,829 Chinese (nearly double the 1990 total of 55,023), 58,340 Filipinos, 129,365 Asian Indians (more than triple the 1990 figure of 40,506), 45,571 Koreans, 17,120 Japanese, and 10,114 Laotians. Of the 134,961 Vietnamese (up from 60,649 in 1990), many were refugees who resettled in Texas beginning in 1975. Pacific Islanders numbered 14,434 in 2000.

The term "Anglos" denotes all whites except Spanish-surnamed or Spanish-speaking individuals.



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