Commonwealth of Virginia
ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: Named for Queen Elizabeth I of England, the "Virgin Queen." NICKNAME: The Old Dominion. CAPITAL: Richmond. ENTERED UNION: 25 June 1788 (10th). SONG: "Carry Me Back to Old Virginia" was formally retired from use in 1997 but has not yet been replaced. MOTTO: Sic semper tyrannis (Thus ever to tyrants). FLAG: On a blue field with a white border at the fly, the state seal is centered on a white circle. OFFICIAL SEAL: obverse: the Roman goddess Virtus, dressed as an Amazon and holding a sheathed sword in one hand and a spear in the other, stands over the body of Tyranny, who is pictured with a broken chain in his hand and a fallen crown nearby. The state motto appears below, the word "Virginia" above, and a border of Virginia creeper encircles the whole. reverse: the Roman goddesses of Liberty, Eternity, and Fruitfulness, with the word "Perseverando" (By persevering) above. ANIMAL: Foxhound. BIRD: Cardinal. FLOWER: Dogwood. TREE: Dogwood. SHELL: Oyster. BEVERAGE: Milk. LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Lee-Jackson Day and Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr., 3rd Monday in January; Washington's Birthday, 3rd Monday in February; Memorial Day, last Monday in May; Independence Day, 4 July; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Columbus Day and Yorktown Victory Day, 2nd Monday in October; Election Day, 1st Tuesday after 1st Monday in November; Veterans Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November; Christmas Day, 25 December. TIME: 7 AM EST = noon GMT.
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Ashe, Dora J. (comp.). Four Hundred Years of Virginia, 1584– 1984: An Anthology. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 1985.
Bruce, Philip Alexander. Economic History of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century. 2 vols. New York: Johnson Reprints. n.d. (orig. 1896).
——. Social Life of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century. Lynchburg, Va.: J. P. Bell, 1927.
Buni, Andrew. The Negro in Virginia Politics, 1902–65. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia. 1967.
Dabney, Virginius. Richmond: The Story of a City. Rev. and enl. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1990.
——. Virginia: The New Dominion. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1983 (orig. 1971).
Davis, Richard Beale. Intellectual Life in Jefferson's Virginia, 1790–1830. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1972.
Diversity and Accommodation: Essays on the Cultural Composition of the Virginia Frontier. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1997.(orig. 1964).
Federal Writers' Project. Virginia: A Guide to the Old Dominion. New York: Somerset, 1980 (orig. 1940).
Friddell, Guy. What Is It About Virginia? Richmond: Dietz, 1983 (orig. 1966).
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Malone, Dumas. Jefferson and His Time. Vols. 1 and 2. Boston: Little, Brown, 1948, 1951.
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——. The Virginia Experiment: The Old Dominion's Role in the Making of America, 1607–1781. 3rd ed. Lanham, Md.: Hamilton Press, 1987.
Moger, Allen W. Virginia: Bourbonism to Byrd, 1870–1925. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1968.
Morgan, Edmund S. American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia. New York: Norton, 1975.
Morton, Richard L. Colonial Virginia. 2 vols. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1960.
Pratt, Robert A. The Color of Their Skin: Education and Race in Richmond, Virginia, 1954-89. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1992.
Ragsdale, Bruce A. A Planters' Republic: The Search for Economic Independence in Revolutionary Virginia. Madison, Wis.: Madison House, 1996.
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Shade, William G. Democratizing the Old Dominion: Virginia and the Second Party System, 1824-1861. Charlottesville: University Press.
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