State of Washington

ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: Named for George Washington. NICKNAME: The Evergreen State. CAPITAL: Olympia. ENTERED UNION: 11 November 1889 (42nd). SONG: "Washington, My Home." DANCE: Square dance. MOTTO: Alki (Chinook for By and by ). FLAG: The state seal centered on a dark green field. OFFICIAL SEAL: Portrait of George Washington surrounded by the words "The Seal of the State of Washington 1889." BIRD: Willow goldfinch. FISH: Steelhead trout. FLOWER: Coast rhododendron. TREE: Western hemlock. GEM: Petrified wood. FRUIT: Apple. LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr., 3rd Monday in January; Presidents' Day, 2nd Monday in February; Memorial Day, last Monday in May; Independence Day, 4 July; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Veterans Day and State Admission Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November; Christmas Day, 25 December. TIME: 4 AM PST = noon GMT.


Asher, Brad. Beyond the Reservation: Indians, Settlers, and the Law in Washington Territory, 1853–1889. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1999.

Bancroft, H. H. History of Washington, Idaho, and Montana. San Francisco: History Co., 1890.

Blair, Karen J. Northwest Women: An Annotated Bibliography of Sources on the History of Oregon and Washington Women, 1787–1970. Pullman, Wash.: Washington State University Press, 1997.

Clark, Norman H. Washington: A Bicentennial History. New York: Norton, 1976.

Douglas, William O. Of Men and Mountains. New York: Harper & Row, 1950.

Drury, Clifford M. Marcus and Narcissa Whitman and the Opening of Old Oregon. 2 vols. Glendale, Calif.: Clark, 1973.

Ficken, Robert E. Lumber and Politics: The Career of Mark E. Reed. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1980.

Johansen, Dorothy O., and Charles M. Gates. Empire of the Columbia: A History of the Pacific Northwest. 2nd ed. New York: Harper & Row, 1967.

Kirk, Ruth. Washington State: National Parks, Historic Sites, Recreation Areas, and Natural Landmarks. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1974.

Lee, W. Storrs, ed. Washington State: A Literary Chronicle. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1969.

Mapes, Lynda. Washington: the Spirit of the Land. Stillwater, Minn.: Voyageur Press, 1999.

Meany, Edmond S. History of the State of Washington. New York: Macmillan, 1909.

Meinig, D. W. The Great Columbia Plain: A Historical Geography, 1805–1910. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1968.

Seeberger, Edward D. Sine Die: A Guide to the Washington State Legislative Process. Seattle, Wash.: Washington State University Press, 1997.

Snowden, Clinton A . History of Washington. 6 vols. New York: Century History, 1911.

Stewart, Edgar I. Washington, Northwest Frontier. 4 vols. New York: Lewis, 1957.

The Washington Almanac. Portland, Or.: WestWinds Press, 1999.