State of Wisconsin
ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: Probably from the Ojibwa word wishkonsing, meaning "place of the beaver." NICKNAME: The Badger State. CAPITAL: Madison. ENTERED UNION: 29 May 1848 (30th). SONG: "On, Wisconsin!" MOTTO: Forward. COAT OF ARMS: Surrounding the US shield is the shield of Wisconsin, which is divided into four parts symbolizing agriculture, mining, navigation, and manufacturing. Flanking the shield are a sailor, representing labor on water, and a yeoman or miner, representing labor on land. Above is a badger and the state motto; below, a horn of plenty and a pyramid of pig lead. FLAG: A dark-blue field, fringed in yellow on three sides, surrounds the state coat of arms on each side, with "Wisconsin" in white letters above the coat of arms and "1848" below. OFFICIAL SEAL: Arms surrounded by the words "Great Seal of the State of Wisconsin" and 13 stars below. ANIMAL: Badger. WILDLIFE ANIMAL: White-tailed deer. DOMESTIC ANIMAL: Dairy cow. BIRD: Robin. SYMBOL OF PEACE: Mourning dove. FISH: Muskellunge. INSECT: Honeybee. FLOWER: Wood violet. TREE: Sugar maple. ROCK: Red granite. MINERAL: Galena. SOIL: Antigo silt loam. BEVERAGE: Milk. GRAIN: Corn. DANCE: Polka. LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr., 3rd Monday in January; Lincoln and Washington Day, 3rd Monday in February; Good Friday, March or April; Memorial Day, last Monday in May; Independence Day, 4 July; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Primary Day, 2nd Tuesday in September in even-numbered years; Columbus Day, 2nd Monday in October; Election Day, 1st Tuesday after 1st Monday in November in even-numbered years; Veterans Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November; Christmas Day, 25 December. TIME: 6 am CST = noon GMT.
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Current, Richard N. The History of Wisconsin. Vol. 2: The Civil War Era, 1848–73. Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1976.
Current, Richard N. Wisconsin: A History. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2001.
Davenport, Don. Natural Wonders of Wisconsin: Exploring Wild and Scenic Places. Lincolnwood, Ill.: Country Roads Press, 1999.
Dictionary of Wisconsin Biography. Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1960.
Federal Writers' Project. Wisconsin: A Guide to the Badger State. Reprint, New York: Somerset, n.d.
Gara, Larry. A Short History of Wisconsin. Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1962.
Klement, Frank L. Wisconsin in the Civil War: The Home Front and the Battle Front, 1861–1865. Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1997.
Nesbit, Robert C. Wisconsin: A History. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1973.
Pederson, Jane Marie. Between Memory and Reality: Family and Community in Rural Wisconsin, 1870–1970. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1992.
Risjord, Norman K. Wisconsin: The Story of the Badger State. Madison: Wisconsin Trails, 1995.
Ritzenthaler, Robert E. Prehistoric Indians of Wisconsin. Milwaukee: Milwaukee Public Museum, 1953.
Smith, Alice E. The History of Wisconsin. From Exploration to Statehood . Vol. 1. Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1973.
State of Wisconsin, Legislative Reference Bureau. Blue Book. Madison, n.d.
Still, Bayrd. Milwaukee: The History of a City. Madison: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1948.
Thelen, David P. Robert M. La Follette and the Insurgent Spirit. Boston: Little, Brown, 1976.
Yatzeck, Richard. Hunting the Edges. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1999.