London, England, United Kingdom, Europe
Founded: 1st century A.D.
Location: Southeastern England on the Thames River
Motto: "God save the Queen."
Time Zone: Greenwich Mean Time (GMT); 1 PM British Summer Time (late Marchlate October) = noon GMT
Elevation: 5 m (16 ft)
Latitude and Longitude: 40°45'N, 73°59'W
Climate : Mild winters and temperate summers
Annual Mean Temperature: 11°C (52.0°F); January 5.5°C (42°F); July 18°C (65°F)
Seasonal Average Snowfall: 20 days of snow, no accumulation;
Average Annual Precipitation (total of rainfall and melted snow): 101.6 cm (40 in)
Weights and Measures: Metric system
Monetary Units: Decimal system based on the pound sterling, a paper currency of 100 pence
Telephone Area Codes: 20, followed by 7 or 8 depending on location; (UK Code, 44)
Postal Codes: Letter for general area (E = East; EC = East Central; N = North; NW = Northwest; SE = Southeast; SW = Southwest; W = West; WC = West Central); numbers for specific district
Located in southeastern England, London is approximately 80 kilometers (50 miles) upstream from the Thames River's estuary on the North Sea.
Various highways lead into London from all directions, like the spokes of a wheel, intersecting with highway M25, which rings the Greater London area, and, farther in, with highways A205 and 406, which circle the central part of the city.
Eurostar trains provide service between London and six destinations in France and Belgium. London's train stations provide direct connections to the city's buses and Underground. The Chunnel train runs between Paris and London's Waterloo station.
Located 24 kilometers (15 miles) from the center of London, Heathrow Airport is one of the busiest in the world. Gatwick, which is about 40 kilometers (25 miles) south of the city, is less heavily used, but traffic there is growing steadily. Smaller airports are Stansted, used primarily for travel to and from the European continent, and London City Airport, which is popular with business travelers from elsewhere in Britain and from northern Europe.
Historically, London's location on the Thames and its proximity to both the English Channel and the North Sea—as well as its position as the center of an international empire—made it one of the world's great trading centers. Until World War II the Port of London was the busiest in the world. Since the late 1960s, however, London's shipping traffic has declined dramatically due to competition, labor problems, and changes in the shipping industry itself. In 2000, the Port of London accounted for only eight percent of Britain's total shipping traffic.
Area: 2.7 sq km (1 sq mi)
Nicknames: The Square Mile, The City
Description: Consists of 33 boroughs
Area: 1,579 sq km (610 sq mi)
World population rank1: 25
Percentage of national population2: 13.1%
Average yearly growth rate: 0%
London's port is administered by the Port of London Authority (PLA), which handles environmental and navigation issues for the part of the Thames that falls under its jurisdiction. Through its 86 terminals, the port handles a full range of cargo, which is shipped to destinations all over the world.
Bus and rail services are operated by London Transport throughout the Greater London area. A fleet of about 5,400 buses covers 700 routes which encompass 140 bus stations and stands and some 10,000 bus shelters. The city's underground trains (known simply as the Underground or "the Tube") service over 260 stations; 500 trains make over 2.5 million passenger journeys daily. The £3.2 billion Jubilee Line Extension, opened in November 1999, runs between Green Park and Waterloo. It is the single largest expansion of the underground system in 25 years.
A number of bus tours are available, including the hour-and-a-half Original London Sightseeing Tour aboard an old-fashioned double-decker bus. Harrods department store operates its own double-decker bus tours, and Big Bus Company, Ltd. runs two-hour tours in the summertime, covering 18 popular tourist attractions.
Companies offering walking tours include the Original London Walks, Discovery Walks, Guided Walks in London, and John Wittich.
The Port of London, an increasingly popular cruise ship destination, has four cruise ship moorings, at Tower Bridge, Greenwich, West India Dock, and Tilbury. Tours are also offered on London's canals.
London's historic and cultural attractions have made it one of the world's great tourist centers. Over ten million people visit the city annually. Collectively, visitors to London spend over 100 million nights annually in the city's hotels, and more than 200,000 people are directly employed by the tourist industry while tourism indirectly creates employment for many more.
Digital City: London. [Online] Available http://london.digitalcity.com (accessed December 20, 1999).
London official internet site. [Online] Available http://www.LondonTown.com (accessed December 20, 1999).
This is London. [Online] Available http://www.thisislondon.com
Time Out London. [Online] Available http://www.timeout.com/london (accessed December 20, 1999).
UK for Visitors. [Online] Available http://gouk.miningco.com (accessed December 20, 1999).
Prime Minister's Office
10 Downing St.
London SW1A 2AA
50 Queen Anne's Gate
London SW1H 9AT
Lord Chancellor's Department
House of Lords
London SW1A 0PW
British Tourist Authority
London W6 9EL
British Visitor Centre
1 Regent St.
London SW1Y 4PQ
The Daily Telegraph
1 Canada Sq., Canary Wharf
London, E14 5DT
119 Farrington Rd.
London, EC1R 3ER
London E1 9XJ
London, E1 9XT
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Collin, Francesca. The Arts & Entertainment in London. New York: Sterling Publishing, 1997.
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Duncan, Andrew. Walking London: Thirty Original Walks in and around London. Lincolnwood, IL: Passport Books, 1994.
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Hendershott, Barbara Sloan, and Alzina Stone Dale. Mystery Reader's Walking Guide, London. 2nd ed. Lincolnwood, IL: Passport Books, 1996.
Howes, Karen. Living in London. Photographs by Simon Upton. London: Thames & Hudson, 1999.
Kureishi, Hanif. London Kills Me: Three Screenplays and Four Essays. New York: Penguin Books, 1992.
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