Tollesboro, Kentucky

Submit your own pictures of this place and show them to the world

  • OSM Map
  • General Map
  • Google Map
  • MSN Map
Population in July 2007: 3,252.
Males: 1,649  (50.7%)
Females: 1,603  (49.3%)
Median resident age:

36.9 years
Kentucky median age:

35.9 years

Zip code: 41179

Estimated median household income in 2022: $42,489 (it was $26,103 in 2000)
Tollesboro:

$42,489
KY:

$59,341

Estimated per capita income in 2022: $24,494 (it was $14,124 in 2000)

Tollesboro CCD income, earnings, and wages data

Estimated median house or condo value in 2022: $112,178 (it was $47,300 in 2000)
Tollesboro:

$112,178
KY:

$196,300
March 2022 cost of living index in Tollesboro: 83.5 (less than average, U.S. average is 100)
Business Profiles
Profiles of local businesses
Put your B&M business profile right here for free. 50,000 businesses already created their profiles!

Compare current foreclosures near Tollesboro, KY:

Check out more offers near Tollesboro, KY.
Powered by Foreclosure.com
  • Races in Tollesboro, KY (2000)
    • 3,22597.9%White alone
    • 250.8%Two or more races
    • 250.8%Hispanic
    • 120.4%American Indian alone
    • 50.2%Black alone
    • 10.03%Asian alone

Races in Tollesboro detailed stats: ancestries, foreign born residents, place of birth



According to our research of Kentucky and other state lists, there were 4 registered sex offenders living in Tollesboro, Kentucky as of May 26, 2024.
The ratio of all residents to sex offenders in Tollesboro is 813 to 1.
The ratio of registered sex offenders to all residents in this city is lower than the state average.


Recent articles from our blog. Our writers, many of them Ph.D. graduates or candidates, create easy-to-read articles on a wide variety of topics.

Current Local Time: EST time zone

Elevation: 816 feet

Land area: 129.7 square miles.

Population density: 25 people per square mile   (very low).

Tollesboro, Kentucky map
Median real estate property taxes paid for housing units in 2000:
Tollesboro CCD:

0.6% ($283)
Kentucky:

0.8% ($610)

Nearest city with pop. 50,000+: Huntington, WV (61.0 miles , pop. 51,475).

Nearest city with pop. 200,000+: Cincinnati, OH (64.3 miles , pop. 331,285).

Nearest city with pop. 1,000,000+: Chicago, IL (313.7 miles , pop. 2,896,016).

Nearest cities:

Concord, KY (2.7 miles),
Manchester, OH (2.8 miles ),
Rome, OH (3.2 miles),
Vanceburg, KY (3.4 miles ),
Bentonville, OH (3.4 miles ),
Maysville, KY (3.7 miles ),
Aberdeen, OH (3.7 miles ),
Laurel-Petersville, KY (3.8 miles )

Latitude: 38.59 N, Longitude: 83.54 W

Area code: 606

Distribution of median household income in Tollesboro, KY in 2022
Tollesboro satellite photo by USGS
Unemployment in December 2023:
Here:

8.0%
Kentucky:

3.8%
Most common industries in Tollesboro, KY (%)
Both Males Females
Most common industries in 2000
  • Agriculture, forestry, fishing & hunting (11.1%)
  • Educational services (8.0%)
  • Health care (7.2%)
  • Transportation equipment (7.2%)
  • Construction (6.6%)
  • Truck transportation (5.5%)
  • Machinery (5.4%)
Most common industries for males in 2000
  • Agriculture, forestry, fishing & hunting (19.1%)
  • Construction (11.3%)
  • Truck transportation (7.3%)
  • Machinery (6.5%)
  • Transportation equipment (6.0%)
  • Mining, quarrying, oil & gas extraction (5.2%)
  • Educational services (4.8%)
Most common industries for females in 2000
  • Health care (15.3%)
  • Educational services (11.6%)
  • Transportation equipment (8.5%)
  • Apparel (6.9%)
  • Accommodation & food services (6.8%)
  • Miscellaneous manufacturing (4.7%)
  • Finance & insurance (4.4%)
Most common occupations in Tollesboro, KY (%)
Both Males Females
Most common occupations in 2000
  • Farmers and farm managers (9.8%)
  • Other production occupations, including supervisors (6.6%)
  • Laborers and material movers, hand (6.4%)
  • Driver/sales workers and truck drivers (5.1%)
  • Metal workers and plastic workers (4.6%)
  • Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers (4.4%)
  • Assemblers and fabricators (4.2%)
Most common occupations for males in 2000
  • Farmers and farm managers (16.8%)
  • Driver/sales workers and truck drivers (7.6%)
  • Other production occupations, including supervisors (7.3%)
  • Metal workers and plastic workers (7.1%)
  • Laborers and material movers, hand (6.9%)
  • Construction traders workers except carpenters, electricians, painters, plumbers, and construction laborers (4.3%)
  • Construction laborers (3.9%)
Most common occupations for females in 2000
  • Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers (8.5%)
  • Other office and administrative support workers, including supervisors (7.8%)
  • Laborers and material movers, hand (5.7%)
  • Cashiers (5.7%)
  • Other production occupations, including supervisors (5.7%)
  • Preschool, kindergarten, elementary, and middle school teachers (5.0%)
  • Assemblers and fabricators (4.4%)

Average climate in Tollesboro, Kentucky

Based on data reported by over 4,000 weather stations

Tollesboro, Kentucky average temperatures Tollesboro, Kentucky average precipitation Tollesboro, Kentucky humidity Tollesboro, Kentucky wind speed Tollesboro, Kentucky snowfall Tollesboro, Kentucky sunshine Tollesboro, Kentucky clear and cloudy days
Air pollution and air quality trends
(lower is better)
AQI SO2 PM2.5
Air Quality Index

Air Quality Index (AQI) level in 2020 was 57.1. This is better than average.

City:

57.1
U.S.:

72.6
Sulfur Dioxide Level

Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) [ppb] level in 2020 was 0.213. This is significantly better than average. Closest monitor was 7.9 miles away from the city center.

City:

0.213
U.S.:

1.515
Particulate Matter Level

Particulate Matter (PM2.5) [µg/m3] level in 2020 was 7.41. This is about average. There were 0 monitors within city limits.

City:

7.41
U.S.:

8.11

Tornado activity:

Tollesboro-area historical tornado activity is slightly below Kentucky state average. It is 6% smaller than the overall U.S. average.

On 4/23/1968, a category F5 (max. wind speeds 261-318 mph) tornado 40.6 miles away from the Tollesboro place center killed 7 people and injured 93 people and caused between $500,000 and $5,000,000 in damages.

On 5/7/1967, a category F3 (max. wind speeds 158-206 mph) tornado 8.8 miles away from the place center caused between $5000 and $50,000 in damages.

Earthquake activity:

Tollesboro-area historical earthquake activity is significantly above Kentucky state average. It is 33% greater than the overall U.S. average.

On 7/27/1980 at 18:52:21, a magnitude 5.2 (5.1 MB, 4.7 MS, 5.0 UK, 5.2 UK, Class: Moderate, Intensity: VI - VII) earthquake occurred 34.5 miles away from the city center
On 9/7/1988 at 02:28:09, a magnitude 4.6 (4.5 MB, 4.6 LG, Class: Light, Intensity: IV - V) earthquake occurred 35.9 miles away from Tollesboro center
On 8/23/2011 at 17:51:04, a magnitude 5.8 (5.8 MW, Depth: 3.7 mi) earthquake occurred 307.8 miles away from the city center
On 4/18/2008 at 09:36:59, a magnitude 5.4 (5.1 MB, 4.8 MS, 5.4 MW, 5.2 MW) earthquake occurred 235.5 miles away from the city center
On 8/9/2020 at 12:07:37, a magnitude 5.1 (5.1 MW, Depth: 4.7 mi) earthquake occurred 198.3 miles away from the city center
On 4/18/2008 at 09:36:59, a magnitude 5.2 (5.2 MW, Depth: 8.9 mi) earthquake occurred 235.5 miles away from the city center
Magnitude types: regional Lg-wave magnitude (LG), body-wave magnitude (MB), surface-wave magnitude (MS), moment magnitude (MW)

Natural disasters:

The number of natural disasters in Lewis County (26) is a lot greater than the US average (15).
Major Disasters (Presidential) Declared: 22
Emergencies Declared: 3

Causes of natural disasters: Floods: 19, Storms: 16, Mudslides: 9, Tornadoes: 8, Winter Storms: 7, Landslides: 6, Snowstorms: 2, Blizzard: 1, Hurricane: 1, Snowfall: 1, Wind: 1, Other: 1 (Note: some incidents may be assigned to more than one category).

Hospitals and medical centers near Tollesboro:

  • ADAMS COUNTY MANOR (Nursing Home, about 14 miles away; WEST UNION, OH)
  • EAGLE CREEK NURSING CENTER (Nursing Home, about 14 miles away; WEST UNION, OH)
  • CHESTNUT RIDGE CARE CENTER (Nursing Home, about 15 miles away; WEST UNION, OH)
  • ADAMS COUNTY HOSPITAL (Hospital, about 15 miles away; WEST UNION, OH)
  • ADAMS COUNTY HOSPITAL CARE CENTER (Nursing Home, about 15 miles away; WEST UNION, OH)
  • MAYSVILLE EXTENDED CARE (Nursing Home, about 15 miles away; MAYSVILLE, KY)
  • MAYSVILLE NURSING AND REHABILITATION FACILITY (Nursing Home, about 15 miles away; MAYSVILLE, KY)

Amtrak station near Tollesboro:

  • 14 miles: MAYSVILLE (W. FRONT ST.) . Services: partially wheelchair accessible, enclosed waiting area, public restrooms, public payphones, full-service food facilities, free short-term parking, free long-term parking, call for taxi service.

Colleges/universities with over 2000 students nearest to Tollesboro:

  • Maysville Community and Technical College (about 15 miles; Maysville, KY; Full-time enrollment: 2,969)
  • Morehead State University (about 29 miles; Morehead, KY; FT enrollment: 7,523)
  • Shawnee State University (about 31 miles; Portsmouth, OH; FT enrollment: 4,160)
  • Southern State Community College (about 46 miles; Hillsboro, OH; FT enrollment: 2,418)
  • Ashland Community and Technical College (about 49 miles; Ashland, KY; FT enrollment: 2,482)
  • University of Cincinnati-Clermont College (about 50 miles; Batavia, OH; FT enrollment: 2,739)
  • Northern Kentucky University (about 59 miles; Highland Heights, KY; FT enrollment: 12,059)

Private high school in Tollesboro:

  • TOLLESBORO CHRISTIAN JR SR HIGH SCHOOL (Students: 4, Location: INTERSECTION HWY 57 & HWY 10, Grades: 7-12)

Public elementary/middle school in Tollesboro:

See full list of schools located in Tollesboro

Points of interest:

Click to draw/clear place borders

Notable locations in Tollesboro: Ruggles Camp (A), Wells Landing (B), Manchester Station Landing (C), Chalkley Station (D), Tollesboro Volunteer Fire Department (E). Display/hide their locations on the map

Churches in Tollesboro include: Fryes Church (A), Gallilee Church (B), Happy Hollow Church (C), Wesley Chapel (D), Mount Tabor Church (E), Mount Zion Church (F), Muses Chapel (G), Pine Grove Church (H), Pine Valley Church (I). Display/hide their locations on the map

Cemeteries: Mays Cemetery (1), Hackworth Cemetery (2), Cedar Leaf Cemetery (3), Burtonville Cemetery (4), Nash Cemetery (5), Pine Grove Cemetery (6), Fairmont Cemetery (7). Display/hide their locations on the map

Reservoir: Mitchell Lake (A). Display/hide its location on the map

Streams, rivers, and creeks: Buck Lick Branch (A), Toles Creek (B), Bethel Creek (C), Big Branch (D), Browns Run (E), Crooked Creek (F), Union Branch (G), Turkey Run (H), Clear Creek (I). Display/hide their locations on the map

Birthplace of: Lucille P. Markey - Philanthropist.

Lewis County has a predicted average indoor radon screening level between 2 and 4 pCi/L (pico curies per liter) - Moderate Potential
Average household size:
This place:

2.5 people
Kentucky:

2.5 people

Percentage of family households:
This place:

73.2%
Whole state:

66.9%

Percentage of households with unmarried partners:
This place:

6.6%
Whole state:

6.4%


Likely homosexual households (counted as self-reported same-sex unmarried-partner households)
  • Lesbian couples: 0.4% of all households
  • Gay men: 0.2% of all households
Residents with income below the poverty level in 2009:
This place:

22.5%
Whole state:

15.8%
Residents with income below 50% of the poverty level in 2009:
This place:

6.5%
Whole state:

6.6%

Banks with branches in Tollesboro (2011 data):

  • Citizens Deposit Bank & Trust: Tollesboro Branch at State Highway 10, branch established on 1967/11/27. Info updated 2010/09/27: Bank assets: $212.9 mil, Deposits: $183.5 mil, headquarters in Vanceburg, KY, positive income, Commercial Lending Specialization, 9 total offices, Holding Company: Premier Financial Bancorp, Inc.

For population 15 years and over in Tollesboro:

Marital status in Tollesboro, KY
  • Never married: 20.1%
  • Now married: 63.1%
  • Separated: 1.5%
  • Widowed: 6.4%
  • Divorced: 10.3%

For population 25 years and over in Tollesboro:

  • High school or higher: 63.8%
  • Bachelor's degree or higher: 9.0%
  • Graduate or professional degree: 5.1%
  • Unemployed: 3.3%
  • Mean travel time to work (commute): 33.3 minutes
Educational Attainment in 2000
School Enrollment by Level of School in 2000
Education Gini index (Inequality in education)
Here:

15.4
Kentucky average:

13.8

Presidential Elections Results

Graphs represent county-level data. Detailed 2008 Election Results

Religion statistics for Tollesboro, KY (based on Lewis County data)

Religions Adherents in 2010
Religions Adherents - Change between 2000 and 2010
ReligionAdherentsCongregations
Evangelical Protestant3,01824
Mainline Protestant8198
Catholic401
None9,993-
Source: Clifford Grammich, Kirk Hadaway, Richard Houseal, Dale E.Jones, Alexei Krindatch, Richie Stanley and Richard H.Taylor. 2012. 2010 U.S.Religion Census: Religious Congregations & Membership Study. Association of Statisticians of American Religious Bodies. Jones, Dale E., et al. 2002. Congregations and Membership in the United States 2000. Nashville, TN: Glenmary Research Center. Graphs represent county-level data

Food Environment Statistics:

Number of grocery stores: 7
This county:

5.05 / 10,000 pop.
Kentucky:

2.19 / 10,000 pop.
Number of convenience stores (with gas): 11
This county:

7.93 / 10,000 pop.
State:

4.36 / 10,000 pop.
Number of full-service restaurants: 4
This county:

2.88 / 10,000 pop.
State:

5.74 / 10,000 pop.
Adult diabetes rate:
This county:

10.4%
Kentucky:

11.0%
Adult obesity rate:
Lewis County:

33.6%
State:

30.0%
Low-income preschool obesity rate:
This county:

16.4%
Kentucky:

15.9%

Strongest AM radio stations in Tollesboro:

  • WLW (700 AM; 50 kW; CINCINNATI, OH; Owner: JACOR BROADCASTING CORPORATION)
  • WTVN (610 AM; 50 kW; COLUMBUS, OH; Owner: CITICASTERS LICENSES, L.P.)
  • WSAI (1530 AM; 50 kW; CINCINNATI, OH; Owner: JACOR BROADCASTING CORPORATION)
  • WKKS (1570 AM; 1 kW; VANCEBURG, KY; Owner: BROWN COMMUNICATIONS, INC.)
  • WHAS (840 AM; 50 kW; LOUISVILLE, KY; Owner: CLEAR CHANNEL BROADCASTING LICENSES, INC.)
  • WFTM (1240 AM; 1 kW; MAYSVILLE, KY; Owner: STANDARD TABACCO CO.)
  • WNXT (1260 AM; 5 kW; PORTSMOUTH, OH; Owner: HOMETOWN B/C OF PORTSMOUTH, INC.)
  • WGOH (1370 AM; 5 kW; GRAYSON, KY; Owner: CARTER COUNTY BROADCASTING CO., INC.)
  • WRFD (880 AM; daytime; 23 kW; COLUMBUS-WORTHINGTON, OH; Owner: SALEM MEDIA OF OHIO, INC.)
  • WKRC (550 AM; 5 kW; CINCINNATI, OH; Owner: JACOR BROADCASTING CORPORATION)
  • WLGC (1520 AM; daytime; 5 kW; GREENUP, KY; Owner: GREENUP COUNTY BROADCASTING, INC.)
  • WFLE (1060 AM; daytime; 0 kW; FLEMINGSBURG, KY; Owner: FLEMING COUNTY BROADCASTING CO., INC)
  • WLAP (630 AM; 5 kW; LEXINGTON, KY; Owner: CITICASTERS LICENSES, L.P.)

Strongest FM radio stations in Tollesboro:

  • WAGX (101.3 FM; MANCHESTER, OH; Owner: JEWELL SCHAEFFER BROADCASTING CO.)
  • WFLE-FM (95.1 FM; FLEMINGSBURG, KY; Owner: FLEMING COUNTY BROADCASTING CO., INC)
  • WPAY-FM (104.1 FM; PORTSMOUTH, OH; Owner: RADIO STATIONS WPAY/WPFB, INC.)
  • WOSP (91.5 FM; PORTSMOUTH, OH; Owner: THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY)
  • WKKS-FM (104.9 FM; VANCEBURG, KY; Owner: BROWN COMMUNICATIONS, INC.)
  • WMKY (90.3 FM; MOREHEAD, KY; Owner: MOREHEAD STATE UNIVERSITY)
  • WFTM-FM (95.9 FM; MAYSVILLE, KY; Owner: STANDARD TOBACCO COMPANY, INC.)
  • WRAC (103.1 FM; WEST UNION, OH; Owner: DREAMCATCHER COMMUNICATIONS, INC.)
  • WBVX (92.1 FM; CARLISLE, KY; Owner: L.M. COMMUNICATIONS OF KENTUCKY, LLC)
  • WVXW (89.5 FM; WEST UNION, OH; Owner: XAVIER UNIVERSITY)
  • WOHP (88.3 FM; PORTSMOUTH, OH; Owner: THE CEDARVILLE UNIVERSITY)
  • WOKE (98.3 FM; GARRISON, KY; Owner: BIG RIVER RADIO, INC.)
  • WAOL (99.5 FM; RIPLEY, OH; Owner: RICHARD L. PLESSINGER, SR.)
  • WBMK (88.5 FM; MOREHEAD, KY; Owner: AMERICAN FAMILY ASSOCIATION)
  • WNXT-FM (99.3 FM; PORTSMOUTH, OH; Owner: HOMETOWN B/C OF PORTSMOUTH, INC.)
  • WAXZ (97.7 FM; GEORGETOWN, OH; Owner: RICHARD L. PLESSINGER, SR.)
  • W215AV (90.9 FM; SOUTH PORTSMOUTH, KY; Owner: CALVARY CHAPEL OF TWIN FALLS, INC.)
  • WZZZ (107.5 FM; PORTSMOUTH, OH; Owner: HOMETOWN BROADCASTING OF PORTSMOUTH 2, INC.)

TV broadcast stations around Tollesboro:

  • WPBO (Channel 42; PORTSMOUTH, OH; Owner: THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY)
  • WHCP (Channel 30; PORTSMOUTH, OH; Owner: TELEVISION PROPERTIES, INC.)
  • WUPX-TV (Channel 67; MOREHEAD, KY; Owner: PAXSON LEXINGTON LICENSE, INC.)
  • WKMR (Channel 38; MOREHEAD, KY; Owner: KENTUCKY AUTHORITY FOR EDUCATIONAL TV)
  • W17AY (Channel 17; SEAMAN, OH; Owner: TRANQUILITY COMMUNITY CHURCH)
Tollesboro fatal accident statistics for 1975 - 2021
Fatal road traffic accident statistics for 1975 - 2021
See more detailed statistics of Tollesboro fatal car crashes and road traffic accidents for 1975 - 2021 here

FCC Registered Antenna Towers:

6
  • Mattherw J Wallack, 19838 W Ky 9 (Lat: 38.566944 Lon: -83.632944), Type: 83.5, Overall height: 82.3 m, Registrant: Aerial Erectors, LLC, Mwallack@blvdllc.Com, , Lowvi-lle, Phone: (315) 376-3333

  • Katie Miller, 214 Lions Club Road (281376 / Aa Hwy Ky) (Lat: 38.559944 Lon: -83.591278), Type: 80.8, Structure height: 21135 m, Overall height: 77.7 m, Registrant: American Towers, LLC, Faa-Fcc@americantower.Com, , Wobur-n, Phone: (678) 265-6730

  • Bridget Carter, 214 Lions Club Road (281376 / Aa Hwy Ky) (Lat: 38.559944 Lon: -83.591278), Type: 80.8, Structure height: 21135 m, Overall height: 77.7 m, Registrant: American Towers, LLC, Faa-Fcc@americantower.Com, , Wobur-n, Phone: (678) 265-6730

  • Jacob T Chapman, 214 Lions Club Road (281376 / Aa Hwy Ky) (Lat: 38.559944 Lon: -83.591278), Type: 80.8, Structure height: 21135 m, Overall height: 77.7 m, Registrant: American Towers, LLC, Faa-Fcc@americantower.Com, , Wobur-n, Phone: (678) 265-6730

  • Matt Wallack, 19838 W Ky 9 (Lat: 38.566944 Lon: -83.632944), Type: 83.5, Structure height: 21135 m, Overall height: 82.3 m, Registrant: Aerial Erectors, LLC, Mwallack@blvdllc.Com, , Lowvi-lle, Phone: (315) 376-3333

  • ronald w hardymon, 323 English Oak Ln (Lat: 38.568917 Lon: -83.596917), Type: 6.2, Structure height: 21135 m, Overall height: 3 m, Registrant: Rons Radio, Ron6754@yahoo.Com, , Tolle-sboro, Phone: (606) 291-9482


FCC Registered Amateur Radio Licenses:

19 (See the full list of FCC Registered Amateur Radio Licenses in Tollesboro)

FAA Registered Aircraft:

1
  • Aircraft: GEMINI TWIN PPC (Category: Land, Seats: 2, Weight: Up to 12,499 Pounds), Engine: ROTAX 582SER (65 HP) (2 Cycle)
    N-Number: 2543Y, N2543Y, N-2543Y, Serial Number: 046, Year manufactured: 2007, Airworthiness Date: 09/05/2007, Certificate Issue Date: 11/22/2010
    Registrant (Individual): Deron K Mullikin, 4099 Buck Lick Br, Tollesboro, KY 41189

2002 - 2018 National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) incidents

    Fire incident distribution by year Based on the data from the years 2002 - 2018 the average number of fire incidents per year is 7. The highest number of fire incidents - 18 took place in 2016, and the least - 0 in 2007. The data has a constant trend.
    Fire incident types in Tollesboro, KY When looking into fire subcategories, the most incidents belonged to: Mobile Property/Vehicle Fires (30.4%), and Outside Fires (29.6%).

    • Fire incident types reported to NFIRS in Tollesboro, KY
    • 3830.4%Mobile Property/Vehicle Fires
    • 3729.6%Outside Fires
    • 2520.0%Structure Fires
    • 2520.0%Other
See full National Fire Incident Reporting System statistics for Tollesboro, KY
Houses and condos Apartments
Most commonly used house heating fuel in houses and condos in Tollesboro, KY
  • 36.9%Electricity
  • 25.0%Bottled, tank, or LP gas
  • 20.3%Utility gas
  • 16.0%Wood
  • 1.7%Other fuel
  • 0.2%Fuel oil, kerosene, etc.
Most commonly used house heating fuel in apartments in Tollesboro, KY
  • 32.3%Bottled, tank, or LP gas
  • 29.1%Utility gas
  • 19.1%Wood
  • 17.3%Electricity
  • 2.3%Fuel oil, kerosene, etc.


Tollesboro compared to Kentucky state average:

  • Median house value below state average.
  • Unemployed percentage significantly below state average.
  • Black race population percentage significantly below state average.
  • Hispanic race population percentage significantly below state average.
  • Median age below state average.
  • Foreign-born population percentage significantly below state average.
  • Renting percentage below state average.
  • Length of stay since moving in significantly above state average.
  • Number of rooms per house significantly below state average.
  • House age significantly below state average.
  • Percentage of population with a bachelor's degree or higher below state average.
There is 1 pilot and no other airmen in this city.
Cost of Living Calculator
Top Patent Applicants
Top Patent Applicants
  • Russel E. Strang (1)

Total of 1 patent application in 2008-2024.