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Old 12-20-2019, 09:06 PM
 
1,481 posts, read 680,552 times
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This string of massacres that happened in about 27 cities back then is something that shouldn't be buried or lost in history. Red Summer's events played a part in the start of the fight for Civil Rights by melanated people in the US also referred to as Black or African Americans.

Time has a good simple article on Red Summer, here. There's no surprise that it started off in Carswell Grove, GA but Chicago, Washington DC, Knoxville, Charleston, SC and Omaha Nebraska were some cities that had massacres and/riots break out.

Some things that I think about when I familiarize myself more with the events of Red Summer were the responses (or lack thereof) of the local police, state government, and President Woodrow Wilson. I'm also shocked with how the media reported events with instigative instead of investigative ways (I'm looking at things with today's glasses but still).

Anyway, I'm going to document more things on here but why is this history somewhat concealed or glossed over? Are there memorials to the victims held in the cities that had the massacres? If so, share thoughts and/information about Red Summer.
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Old 12-21-2019, 07:58 AM
 
9,680 posts, read 9,676,919 times
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Quote:
Originally Posted by 80s_kid View Post
This string of massacres that happened in about 27 cities back then is something that shouldn't be buried or lost in history. Red Summer's events played a part in the start of the fight for Civil Rights by melanated people in the US also referred to as Black or African Americans.

Time has a good simple article on Red Summer, here. There's no surprise that it started off in Carswell Grove, GA but Chicago, Washington DC, Knoxville, Charleston, SC and Omaha Nebraska were some cities that had massacres and/riots break out.

Some things that I think about when I familiarize myself more with the events of Red Summer were the responses (or lack thereof) of the local police, state government, and President Woodrow Wilson. I'm also shocked with how the media reported events with instigative instead of investigative ways (I'm looking at things with today's glasses but still).

Anyway, I'm going to document more things on here but why is this history somewhat concealed or glossed over? Are there memorials to the victims held in the cities that had the massacres? If so, share thoughts and/information about Red Summer.
Its a good article. The democrats would go on in 1920 to lose the presidential election by a very wide margin. This was due to a series of events. The Time article describes some of them. There were others. President Wilson was unable to get the Senate to ratify his League of Nations Treaty. Many Americans had been opposed to our involvement in World War I and saw very little gain for America when it came to an end. They were not sympathetic to the party in power.

The article alludes to poor economic conditions at the end of the war. In American history, a huge inflation often comes at the end of a war. This was true after the end of the Civil War, World War I, and World War II as the nation undergoes a period of readjustment to peace time conditions. The inflation that occurred at the end of World War I was nasty. It would eventually be resolved by massive cuts in government spending and a recession from 1920-1921.

The USA went through the Spanish Flu of 1918-1919 that resulted in over half a million American deaths mostly on the East coast. At some points, deaths were so common that many places stopped having funerals. They would just bury the dead and move on.

Than there were the bombs. I don't think the event is clearly understood to this day. Apparently though, anarchist groups formed--apparently largely composed of immigrants--and they decided to make war on institutions in America. Bombs were set off in various places. For example, Wall Street was bombed. A parade in a least one city was hit by bombs. A bomb was set off at the home of the Attorney General, A. Mitchell Palmer. This bomb didn't kill him, but largely destroyed his home. Mitchell responded by having federal agents conduct a series of raids on immigrant communities. Many innocent people were swept up in these raids and deported.

In 1919, American government institutions lacked the power to respond to major crises. American government was built largely around states and state's rights. The Bureau of Investigation had recently been created by the federal government, but it would be years until it evolved into the FBI with all the powers that the FBI has today. World War I and the events that came after largely marked America's entrance into the Twentieth Century. Adjusting to a new historical epoch would not come quickly or easily.
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Old 12-21-2019, 08:51 AM
 
Location: Pennsylvania
5,621 posts, read 10,159,997 times
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Quote:
Originally Posted by markg91359 View Post
Its a good article. The democrats would go on in 1920 to lose the presidential election by a very wide margin. This was due to a series of events. The Time article describes some of them. There were others. President Wilson was unable to get the Senate to ratify his League of Nations Treaty. Many Americans had been opposed to our involvement in World War I and saw very little gain for America when it came to an end. They were not sympathetic to the party in power.
'Return to normalcy' was a perfect slogan for the Harding campaign. Of course, normalcy turned out to mean massive corruption, but it was a helluva slogan.
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Old 12-22-2019, 12:18 AM
 
1,481 posts, read 680,552 times
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Quote:
Originally Posted by markg91359 View Post
Its a good article. The democrats would go on in 1920 to lose the presidential election by a very wide margin. This was due to a series of events. The Time article describes some of them. There were others. President Wilson was unable to get the Senate to ratify his League of Nations Treaty. Many Americans had been opposed to our involvement in World War I and saw very little gain for America when it came to an end. They were not sympathetic to the party in power.

The article alludes to poor economic conditions at the end of the war. In American history, a huge inflation often comes at the end of a war. This was true after the end of the Civil War, World War I, and World War II as the nation undergoes a period of readjustment to peace time conditions. The inflation that occurred at the end of World War I was nasty. It would eventually be resolved by massive cuts in government spending and a recession from 1920-1921.

The USA went through the Spanish Flu of 1918-1919 that resulted in over half a million American deaths mostly on the East coast. At some points, deaths were so common that many places stopped having funerals. They would just bury the dead and move on.

Than there were the bombs. I don't think the event is clearly understood to this day. Apparently though, anarchist groups formed--apparently largely composed of immigrants--and they decided to make war on institutions in America. Bombs were set off in various places. For example, Wall Street was bombed. A parade in a least one city was hit by bombs. A bomb was set off at the home of the Attorney General, A. Mitchell Palmer. This bomb didn't kill him, but largely destroyed his home. Mitchell responded by having federal agents conduct a series of raids on immigrant communities. Many innocent people were swept up in these raids and deported.

In 1919, American government institutions lacked the power to respond to major crises. American government was built largely around states and state's rights. The Bureau of Investigation had recently been created by the federal government, but it would be years until it evolved into the FBI with all the powers that the FBI has today. World War I and the events that came after largely marked America's entrance into the Twentieth Century. Adjusting to a new historical epoch would not come quickly or easily.
That's interesting. The book that I'm reading did mention that Italian guys were planting bombs around many cities around that time and even one guy tripped and blew himself up while trying to kill Palmer in Washington DC. Back to Red Summer related history, the only city that had quick mob control tactics was Charleston, SC. Melanated Americans were also accused of being linked with Bolshevism. The media and politicians were awful during that time.
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Old 12-22-2019, 04:11 PM
 
1,481 posts, read 680,552 times
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Red Summer: The Race Riots of 1919.

Red Summer Remembered Exhibit Guide.

Red Summer Centennial Marks Dark Period in US History.

Below is an exhibit on the massacres in Elaine, Arkansas
Elaine Race Massacre: Red Summer in Arkansas.

Last edited by 80s_kid; 12-22-2019 at 04:23 PM..
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Old 12-24-2019, 12:24 PM
 
1,481 posts, read 680,552 times
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Hundreds of Black Americans were killed during 'Red Summer.' A Century Later, Still Ignored.

The above is one of the most thorough articles that I've read on this event. The article pointed out that those who survived Red Summer and their children came out more courageous and determined not to let this thing repeat itself... More awareness on how to move was sparked and they fought back.

If We Must Die was a poem by Claude McKay (Yep, Red Summer inspired him).

If We Must Die

That's all for today.

Last edited by 80s_kid; 12-24-2019 at 12:32 PM.. Reason: On my phone, kind of limited.
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Old 12-24-2019, 01:19 PM
 
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Black servicemen returned to US as heroes in 1919 and after being treated so well in France they didn't expect that America would be so quick to put them back in their place. That's how many riots started.
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Old 12-24-2019, 10:04 PM
 
1,481 posts, read 680,552 times
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Originally Posted by thriftylefty View Post
Black servicemen returned to US as heroes in 1919 and after being treated so well in France they didn't expect that America would be so quick to put them back in their place. That's how many riots started.
Yeah, that is some surprising history. I'm looking into the massacre that happened in Elaine, AR. What happened in Elaine was the most brutal portion of the Red Summer ordeal. I can't say enough about the press in those days, times, and areas. [Brace yourself before clicking the video link below]

Elaine Massacre: The Bloodiest Racial Conflict in US History.
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Old 12-25-2019, 10:16 AM
 
Location: Roaring '20s
1,787 posts, read 459,194 times
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Very interesting.

I was generally aware of a spate of anti-black mob violence in the early 1920s: the Tulsa riots (1921), the razing of Rosewood in Florida (1923), and here in Minnesota the only known lynching of blacks (three, in one incident in Duluth in 1920). However, I was not specifically aware of the collective violence known as Red Summer.

Maybe I missed it, but I'm unable to find a specific reason for the term red -- a reference to the blood that was shed is my first guess, but then this incident also coincided with the first red scare (as well as a general intensifying of nativism as a result of the First World War, which saw a heightened fear of those deemed not sufficiently 'American' - ie, not white/Protestant/English-speaking enough). My guess is that it's a blood reference, however.
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Old 12-25-2019, 11:27 AM
 
1,481 posts, read 680,552 times
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Originally Posted by 2x3x29x41 View Post
Very interesting.

I was generally aware of a spate of anti-black mob violence in the early 1920s: the Tulsa riots (1921), the razing of Rosewood in Florida (1923), and here in Minnesota the only known lynching of blacks (three, in one incident in Duluth in 1920). However, I was not specifically aware of the collective violence known as Red Summer.

Maybe I missed it, but I'm unable to find a specific reason for the term red -- a reference to the blood that was shed is my first guess, but then this incident also coincided with the first red scare (as well as a general intensifying of nativism as a result of the First World War, which saw a heightened fear of those deemed not sufficiently 'American' - ie, not white/Protestant/English-speaking enough). My guess is that it's a blood reference, however.
Yes, it is interesting and extensive history. Feel free to post what happened in MN. There are a ton of significant court cases and notable figures spanning many cities during this time. Red Summer is indeed in reference to the blood spilled in the country. 1917-1923 was an awful Massacre filled period for melanated Americans with the apex being 1919.

I haven't really organized the info because there's a lot and I'm just posting on the fly what I find. I'll organize properly later on.

Last edited by 80s_kid; 12-25-2019 at 12:19 PM..
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