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Old 04-11-2010, 07:49 PM
 
Location: Aloverton
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Is that the Uan Muhuggiag mummy?
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Old 04-11-2010, 07:58 PM
 
5,510 posts, read 5,011,884 times
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Quote:
Originally Posted by j_k_k View Post
Is that the Uan Muhuggiag mummy?
I don't know the exact name since its been years that I last saw it.

This time I'm making sure to record it.
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Old 04-11-2010, 08:06 PM
 
Location: Aloverton
6,564 posts, read 12,912,880 times
Reputation: 10072
Quote:
Originally Posted by kovert View Post
I don't know the exact name since its been years that I last saw it.

This time I'm making sure to record it.
Uan Muhuggiag's mummy was one of the earliest deliberate mummifications we have found. Out in a cave in the deserts of Libya, and really nothing else quite like it that I'm aware of. Sounds like this is one and the same. If so, I'd definitely watch because info about it wasn't easy to unearth when I was writing about mummies and mummification.
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Old 04-12-2010, 06:04 PM
 
5,510 posts, read 5,011,884 times
Reputation: 1693
Quote:
Originally Posted by j_k_k View Post
Uan Muhuggiag's mummy was one of the earliest deliberate mummifications we have found. Out in a cave in the deserts of Libya, and really nothing else quite like it that I'm aware of. Sounds like this is one and the same. If so, I'd definitely watch because info about it wasn't easy to unearth when I was writing about mummies and mummification.
I'd recommend watching the Real Scorpion King (the full hour and a half version) after this one.

It has to do with the Nile Valley but it ties into the Saharan peoples at the end.
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Old 06-15-2011, 12:47 PM
 
5,510 posts, read 5,011,884 times
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Well looks like we've come full circle.

I posted this thread a while back, because once I learned about the Saharan desert origins of the Nile cultures I developed an interest in learning about the other cultures in the region as well. Not surprisingly except for jkk, most of the other posters did not have the slightest interest except for racialist nonsense. So since then I've just been researching on my own. The posts I made in the Cleo thread reflect that but its gone downhill fast, so its time to bring the fruits of my search home. Once again here are my recommendations for researching Saharan history.

1 African Archaeological Overviews
a. Cambridge History of Africa & UNESCO General History of Africa are great continent wide series to start off with.

b. Africa and Africans in Antiquity has great articles on the origin of Afrasan (popularly known among academics as Afroasiatic languages such as Berber, Semitic, Egyptian & Cushic); the Nile Valley and adjacent desert regions in modern Nubia; and recent discoveries in the Horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Eritea, Djibouti & Somalia)

c. African Archaeology is another great continent wide text.

d. The Archaeology of Africa is another good read.

e. African Connections is a great text with more recent updates.

2 Evolution of Humanity and Out of Africa Migrations
a. The Evolution of Modern Human Diversity should be the 1st read in this section as it demonstrates that not only was during certain environmental changes were northern Africa and the Middle East extensions of the Horn of Africa in terms of animal and plant life but that early humans such as the Aterians were as well.

b. The Evolution of Modern Humans in Africa is a useful updated supplement.

c. Crossing Deserts and Avoiding Seas: Aterian North African-European Relations is another good article on the Aterians.

3 Saharan Archaeology
a. African Herders is an okay text.

b. Secrets of the Sands, I highly recommend.

c. Genesis of the Pharaohs is one of the best works on the Eastern Desert I have ever came across.

d. Egypt Before the Pharaohs likewise is an excellent resource to understanding the Saharan desert origins of the Nile civilizations.

e. Egypt & Nubia: Gifts of the Desert might be the best up to date text on the Saharan origin of pharaonic culture.

f. Cattle Before Crops presents a strong case for the independent domestication of cattle in the Sahara.

g. The Evolution of Human Populations in Arabia has great updated info on the beginnings of the Neolithic in Arabia. The model of populations in the area of the Levant (modern Israel, Syria, Jordan and the Euphrates) spreading the neolithic into Arabia just doesn't match with the evidence. It looks like the Arabian populations either developed their Neolithic independent from the Levant and/or rather it was contact with the much earlier northeast Africa neolithic that stimulated such endeavors.

h. A Holocene prehistoric sequence in the Egyptian Red Sea area likewise shows that goats/sheep were present in the eastern desert of Egypt before they even appeared in the Negev and Sinai of modern Israel and the Arabian peninsula. Given the similar ecological conditions of these arid areas and the conundrum of rationalizing why and how could goats and sheep just magically jump from Jordan into the deserts of Egypt, a simpler explanation could be that it was likewise independently domesticated by the eastern desert population.

e. Environmental Issues in the Mediterranean gives some dates and citations for Neolithic sites in Northern Africa.

f. Ancient Egypt in Africa has informative essays by MacDonald and Wengrow.

4 Linguistics

a. Christopher Ehret has some great paper and texts. His latest mentions that contrary to the eastern Saharan, the earliest dates for pottery come the area of modern Mali.

b. Roger Blench has a website dedicated to his full text papers, free.

c. The current consensus among linguists is that Semitic, Cushic, Egyptian and the Berber languages belong to a family of languages usually called Afroasiatic or Afrasan. This family is likewise has a consensus of originating somewhere in northeastern Africa. What is interesting about Edward Lipinski is his arguing for Semitic remaining in northeastern Africa and branching off from the rest of the Afrasan family at such a relatively late date (begins on p. 42). Blench likewise gives a late date for the Semitic split, The Semiticisation of the Arabian Peninsula and the problem of its reflection in the archaeological record but Ehret argues for a much earlier date for the Semitic split.

5 Physical Anthropology

a. Above All, First AND FOREMOST, I highly recommend reading the paradigm shattering, excellent papers by Brace. Clines and Clusters is what I recommend starting out with. Then move on up to The questionable contribution of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age to European craniofacial form.

b. Evolution at the Crossroads: Modern Human Emergence in Western Asia by Holliday is another good read.

c. Ron Pinhasi has an essay demonstrating the North African origins of the Capsian as well as the Oranian (erroneously usually termed Ibero-Mauratania) prehistoric cultures and their affinities to those of the Nile.

d. Barry Kemp has a pretty good overview on physical anthropology as it relates to the Nile populations (p.51-55).

6 Overview of Historical Ethnographic References

a. Frank Snowden is a must.

b. Curse of Ham is another good read.

c. Slaves and Slavery in Muslim Africa is pretty informative.

d. Romans and Blacks is a good complement to Snowden.

e. Africans and Native Americans is a most highly recommended text.

7 Nile Overviews

a. Oxford History of Egypt is one of the best works out there.

b. Handbook to Life in Ancient Egypt is another excellent source.

c. An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt deserves a mention.

d. The Egyptians by Morkot is another good read.

e. Now Toby somewhat disappoints me in his otherwise excellent Rise & Fall of Egypt and the Egyptian World. He really backtracks from his earlier, excellent text on the eastern desert. In the earlier text he soundly denounces how earlier Egyptologists distorted egyptian history to fit in line with colonial ideologies. Yet in the more recent works he does the very same thing that he earlier had criticized, still overall they are good reads.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

More recommendations to come.

Last edited by kovert; 06-15-2011 at 01:41 PM..
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Old 06-16-2011, 02:15 PM
 
5,510 posts, read 5,011,884 times
Reputation: 1693
UPDATE:

1 African Archaeological Overviews
a. Cambridge History of Africa & UNESCO General History of Africa are great continent wide series to start off with.

b. Africa and Africans in Antiquity has great articles on the origin of Afrasan (popularly known among academics as Afroasiatic languages such as Berber, Semitic, Egyptian & Cushic); the Nile Valley and adjacent desert regions in modern Nubia; and recent discoveries in the Horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Eritea, Djibouti & Somalia)

c. African Archaeology is another great continent wide text.

d. The Archaeology of Africa is another good read.

e. African Connections is a great text with more recent updates.

f. From Hunters to Farmers is a must read.

g. Chronologies in old world archaeology is great for a envisioning a broader archaeological context.

2 Evolution of Humanity and Out of Africa Migrations
a. The Evolution of Modern Human Diversity should be the 1st read in this section as it demonstrates that not only was during certain environmental changes were northern Africa and the Middle East extensions of the Horn of Africa in terms of animal and plant life but that early humans such as the Aterians were as well.

b. The Evolution of Modern Humans in Africa is a useful updated supplement.

c. Crossing Deserts and Avoiding Seas: Aterian North African-European Relations is another good article on the Aterians.

d. Nina's great video on evolution. I recommend paying attention to the 54-56 minutes on the video towards the end.

3 Saharan Archaeology
a. African Herders is an okay text.

b. Secrets of the Sands, I highly recommend.

c. Genesis of the Pharaohs is one of the best works on the Eastern Desert I have ever came across.

d. Egypt Before the Pharaohs likewise is an excellent resource to understanding the Saharan desert origins of the Nile civilizations.

e. Egypt & Nubia: Gifts of the Desert might be the best up to date text on the Saharan origin of pharaonic culture.

f. Cattle Before Crops presents a strong case for the independent domestication of cattle in the Sahara.

g. The Evolution of Human Populations in Arabia has great updated info on the beginnings of the Neolithic in Arabia. The model of populations in the area of the Levant (modern Israel, Syria, Jordan and the Euphrates) spreading the neolithic into Arabia just doesn't match with the evidence. It looks like the Arabian populations either developed their Neolithic independent from the Levant and/or rather it was contact with the much earlier northeast Africa neolithic that stimulated such endeavors.

h. A Holocene prehistoric sequence in the Egyptian Red Sea area likewise shows that goats/sheep were present in the eastern desert of Egypt before they even appeared in the Negev and Sinai of modern Israel and the Arabian peninsula. Given the similar ecological conditions of these arid areas and the conundrum of rationalizing why and how could goats and sheep just magically jump from Jordan into the deserts of Egypt, a simpler explanation could be that it was likewise independently domesticated by the eastern desert population.

e. Environmental Issues in the Mediterranean gives some dates and citations for Neolithic sites in Northern Africa.

f. Ancient Egypt in Africa has informative essays by MacDonald and Wengrow.

g. Behrens essay in Libya Antique argues that the C-Group Nubians were Berber speakers while Becchaus-Gerst not only agrees but she takes it further in stating that the inhabitants of the area south of the 2nd Cataract (Kush) were Cushic speakers which the ancestors of the present Nubian speaking peoples came in contact with.

4 Linguistics

a. Christopher Ehret has some great paper and texts. His latest mentions that contrary to the eastern Saharan, the earliest dates for pottery come the area of modern Mali.

b. Roger Blench has a website dedicated to his full text papers, free. His books are pretty good too.

c. The current consensus among linguists is that Semitic, Cushic, Egyptian and the Berber languages belong to a family of languages usually called Afroasiatic or Afrasan. This family is likewise has a consensus of originating somewhere in northeastern Africa. What is interesting about Edward Lipinski is his arguing for Semitic remaining in northeastern Africa and branching off from the rest of the Afrasan family at such a relatively late date (begins on p. 42). Blench likewise gives a late date for the Semitic split, The Semiticisation of the Arabian Peninsula and the problem of its reflection in the archaeological record but Ehret argues for a much earlier date for the Semitic split.

d. Ongota tackles the issue of locating the Afrasan speaking peoples ancestral homeland.

5 Physical Anthropology

a. Above All, First AND FOREMOST, I highly recommend reading the paradigm shattering, excellent papers by Brace. Clines and Clusters is what I recommend starting out with. Then move on up to The questionable contribution of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age to European craniofacial form.

b. Evolution at the Crossroads: Modern Human Emergence in Western Asia by Holliday is another good read.

c. Ron Pinhasi has an essay demonstrating the North African origins of the Capsian as well as the Oranian (erroneously usually termed Ibero-Mauratania) prehistoric cultures and their affinities to those of the Nile.

d. Barry Kemp has a pretty good overview on physical anthropology as it relates to the Nile populations (p.51-55).

e. Who were the ancient Egyptians? is a good article by Joel Irish.

f. Nancy C. Lovell more than deserves a nod.

g. Hiernaux's text is a classic.

h. The Biological Adaptation of Man to Hot Deserts by Paul Baker is another good but hard to find read.

6 Overview of Historical Ethnographic References

a. Frank Snowden is a must.

b. Curse of Ham is another good read.

c. Slaves and Slavery in Muslim Africa is pretty informative.

d. Romans and Blacks is a good complement to Snowden.

e. Africans and Native Americans is a most highly recommended text.

f. The invention of racism in classical antiquity is an interesting text.

g. I would recommend 1st reading Lewis for the Islamic period and then Uthman for an alternative viewpoint.

7 Nile Overviews

a. Oxford History of Egypt is one of the best works out there.

b. Handbook to Life in Ancient Egypt is another excellent source.

c. An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt deserves a mention.

d. The Egyptians by Morkot is another good read.

e. Now Toby somewhat disappoints me in his otherwise excellent Rise & Fall of Egypt and the Egyptian World. He really backtracks from his earlier, excellent text on the eastern desert. In the earlier text he soundly denounces how earlier Egyptologists distorted egyptian history to fit in line with colonial ideologies. Yet in the more recent works he does the very same thing that he earlier had criticized, still overall they are good reads.

f. Colleen Manassa texts on war and strategy (Tut & Merneptah) are excellent resources to the New Kingdom Libyans.

g. The Nubian Past is an excellent historical overview.

8 Genetics
a. Stevanovitch & Giles work on an upper Egyptian population is worth checking out.

b. Genetic structure of north-west Africa revealed by
STR analysis
by Elena Bosch is quite interesting.

c. But of them all, I find Sarah A. Tishkoff to have some of the interesting papers. She's also done some taped lectures online.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

To Be Continued.

Last edited by kovert; 06-16-2011 at 02:34 PM..
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Old 06-19-2011, 08:58 PM
 
354 posts, read 780,714 times
Reputation: 307
My own theory is that the population of Libya has historically been similar to what they are now (very mixed). Sometimes more caucasian and sometimes more negro.

I think that the Founding Group of a nation has a disaproportional share of the cultural and genetic influences of a nation (Read Albion Seed by David Hackett Fisher). It stands to reason that Libya's location at the border of Caucasian and Negro lands would cause the original people to be a mixed. Especially when you consider that Race is a relatively new concept.

Starting from the base population of Biracial people the Libyans were likely influenced by Phonecian Settlers from the Middle East and later Roman Settlers. Later more refugees from Rome came to North Africa and then Germanic invasions soon after. At this point the population was probably the most Caucasian it had ever been. Later the Arab Invasions increased the Middle Eastern genetic contribution. After that a lot of Black People and a lot of Europeans were brought as slaves to Libya. Many of them mixed with the local population.
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Old 06-20-2011, 12:33 PM
 
5,510 posts, read 5,011,884 times
Reputation: 1693
UPDATE 2nd Edition:

1 African Archaeological Overviews
a. Cambridge History of Africa & UNESCO General History of Africa are great continent wide series to start off with.

b. Africa and Africans in Antiquity has great articles on the origin of Afrasan (popularly known among academics as Afroasiatic languages such as Berber, Semitic, Egyptian & Cushic); the Nile Valley and adjacent desert regions in modern Nubia; and recent discoveries in the Horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Eritea, Djibouti & Somalia)

c. African Archaeology is another great continent wide text.

d. The Archaeology of Africa is another good read.

e. African Connections is a great text with more recent updates.

f. From Hunters to Farmers is a must read.

g. Chronologies in old world archaeology is great for a envisioning a broader archaeological context.

2 Evolution of Humanity and Out of Africa Migrations
a. The Evolution of Modern Human Diversity should be the 1st read in this section as it demonstrates that not only was during certain environmental changes were northern Africa and the Middle East extensions of the Horn of Africa in terms of animal and plant life but that early humans such as the Aterians were as well.

b. The Evolution of Modern Humans in Africa is a useful updated supplement.

c. Crossing Deserts and Avoiding Seas: Aterian North African-European Relations is another good article on the Aterians.

d. Nina's great video on evolution. I recommend paying attention to the 54-56 minutes on the video towards the end.

3 Saharan Archaeology
a. African Herders is an okay text.

b. Secrets of the Sands, I highly recommend.

c. Genesis of the Pharaohs is one of the best works on the Eastern Desert I have ever came across.

d. Egypt Before the Pharaohs likewise is an excellent resource to understanding the Saharan desert origins of the Nile civilizations.

e. Egypt & Nubia: Gifts of the Desert might be the best up to date text on the Saharan origin of pharaonic culture.

f. Cattle Before Crops presents a strong case for the independent domestication of cattle in the Sahara.

g. The Evolution of Human Populations in Arabia has great updated info on the beginnings of the Neolithic in Arabia. The model of populations in the area of the Levant (modern Israel, Syria, Jordan and the Euphrates) spreading the neolithic into Arabia just doesn't match with the evidence. It looks like the Arabian populations either developed their Neolithic independent from the Levant and/or rather it was contact with the much earlier northeast Africa neolithic that stimulated such endeavors.

h. A Holocene prehistoric sequence in the Egyptian Red Sea area likewise shows that goats/sheep were present in the eastern desert of Egypt before they even appeared in the Negev and Sinai of modern Israel and the Arabian peninsula. Given the similar ecological conditions of these arid areas and the conundrum of rationalizing why and how could goats and sheep just magically jump from Jordan into the deserts of Egypt, a simpler explanation could be that it was likewise independently domesticated by the eastern desert population.

e. Environmental Issues in the Mediterranean gives some dates and citations for Neolithic sites in Northern Africa.

f. Ancient Egypt in Africa has informative essays by MacDonald and Wengrow.

g. Behrens essay in Libya Antique argues that the C-Group Nubians were Berber speakers while Becchaus-Gerst not only agrees but she takes it further in stating that the inhabitants of the area south of the 2nd Cataract (Kush) were Cushic speakers which the ancestors of the present Nubian speaking peoples came in contact with.

4 Linguistics

a. Christopher Ehret has some great paper and texts. His latest mentions that contrary to the eastern Saharan, the earliest dates for pottery come the area of modern Mali.

b. Roger Blench has a website dedicated to his full text papers, free. His books are pretty good too.

c. The current consensus among linguists is that Semitic, Cushic, Egyptian and the Berber languages belong to a family of languages usually called Afroasiatic or Afrasan. This family is likewise has a consensus of originating somewhere in northeastern Africa. What is interesting about Edward Lipinski is his arguing for Semitic remaining in northeastern Africa and branching off from the rest of the Afrasan family at such a relatively late date (begins on p. 42). Blench likewise gives a late date for the Semitic split, The Semiticisation of the Arabian Peninsula and the problem of its reflection in the archaeological record but Ehret argues for a much earlier date for the Semitic split.

d. Ongota tackles the issue of locating the Afrasan speaking peoples ancestral homeland.

5 Physical Anthropology

a. Above All, First AND FOREMOST, I highly recommend reading the paradigm shattering, excellent papers by Brace. Clines and Clusters is what I recommend starting out with. Then move on up to The questionable contribution of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age to European craniofacial form.

b. Evolution at the Crossroads: Modern Human Emergence in Western Asia by Holliday is another good read.

c. Ron Pinhasi has an essay demonstrating the North African origins of the Capsian as well as the Oranian (erroneously usually termed Ibero-Mauratania) prehistoric cultures and their affinities to those of the Nile.

d. Barry Kemp has a pretty good overview on physical anthropology as it relates to the Nile populations (p.51-55).

e. Who were the ancient Egyptians? is a good article by Joel Irish.

f. Nancy C. Lovell more than deserves a nod.

g. Hiernaux's text is a classic.

h. The Biological Adaptation of Man to Hot Deserts by Paul Baker is another good but hard to find read.

6 Overview of Historical Ethnographic References

a. Frank Snowden is a must.

b. Curse of Ham is another good read.

c. Slaves and Slavery in Muslim Africa is pretty informative.

d. Romans and Blacks is a good complement to Snowden.

e. Africans and Native Americans is a most highly recommended text.

f. The invention of racism in classical antiquity is an interesting text.

g. I would recommend 1st reading Lewis for the Islamic period and then Uthman for an alternative viewpoint.

7 Nile Overviews

a. Oxford History of Egypt is one of the best works out there.

b. Handbook to Life in Ancient Egypt is another excellent source.

c. An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt deserves a mention.

d. The Egyptians by Morkot is another good read.

e. Now Toby somewhat disappoints me in his otherwise excellent Rise & Fall of Egypt and the Egyptian World. He really backtracks from his earlier, excellent text on the eastern desert. In the earlier text he soundly denounces how earlier Egyptologists distorted egyptian history to fit in line with colonial ideologies. Yet in the more recent works he does the very same thing that he earlier had criticized, still overall they are good reads.

f. Colleen Manassa texts on war and strategy (Tut & Merneptah) are excellent resources to the New Kingdom Libyans.

g. The Nubian Past is an excellent historical overview.

8 Genetics
a. Stevanovitch & Giles work on an upper Egyptian population is worth checking out.

b. Genetic structure of north-west Africa revealed by
STR analysis
by Elena Bosch is quite interesting.

c. But of them all, I find Sarah A. Tishkoff to have some of the interesting papers. She's also done some taped lectures online.

9 Arabian Peninsula Historical Overview
a. The Arabs in antiquity is the best text on pre-Islamic Arabia that I have come across. Interesting info on Kushic Arabs as well.

b. Arabia and the Arabs is an okay supplement to the above mentioned.

10 Canaanites, Carthage & Libyphoenicians
a. Daily Life in Carthage is somewhat dated, but still deserves a nod.

b. Carthage by Serge is by far the BEST English book I have found on Carthage. This cat goes from exploring the legends and archaeological evidence for Canaanites in the Maghrib centuries before Carthage to revealing how influential Carthage was even after it was destroyed. Its interesting to note that the names of famous Amazigh tribes during the Islamic period seem similar to Libyphoenician peoples such as the Azoros (Aoara/Hawara), Macomadus (Masmuda), Zanata (Byzantes), Seli (Shilha). It seems the famous polymath Ibn Khaldun was right, lo those centuries ago. The Amazigh tribes truly can be traced to the descendants of Canaan.

10.5 The Berbers by Brett is an broad overview in a few hundred pages so its kind of fluff but I'll mention it anyway.

11 Islamic Maghreb
a. A History of the Maghreb is a good overview for the Islamic period.

b. History of North Africa is another overview.

c. A gateway to hell, a gateway to paradise is an excellent text and highly recommended.

d. Ibn Khaldun and the Medieval Maghrib is a great set of essays by Mikey.

e. The Berbers and the Islamic state is A MUST READ.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

To Be Continued.
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Old 06-20-2011, 12:40 PM
 
5,510 posts, read 5,011,884 times
Reputation: 1693
Quote:
Originally Posted by ddmhughes View Post
My own theory is that the population of Libya has historically been similar to what they are now (very mixed). Sometimes more caucasian and sometimes more negro.

I think that the Founding Group of a nation has a disaproportional share of the cultural and genetic influences of a nation (Read Albion Seed by David Hackett Fisher). It stands to reason that Libya's location at the border of Caucasian and Negro lands would cause the original people to be a mixed. Especially when you consider that Race is a relatively new concept.

Starting from the base population of Biracial people the Libyans were likely influenced by Phonecian Settlers from the Middle East and later Roman Settlers. Later more refugees from Rome came to North Africa and then Germanic invasions soon after. At this point the population was probably the most Caucasian it had ever been. Later the Arab Invasions increased the Middle Eastern genetic contribution. After that a lot of Black People and a lot of Europeans were brought as slaves to Libya. Many of them mixed with the local population.
Interesting theory, although based on my own studies there are certain points and terminologies in it that I disagree with but thank you for your interest nonetheless.
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Old 06-24-2011, 02:56 PM
 
5,510 posts, read 5,011,884 times
Reputation: 1693
UPDATE 3rd Edition:

1 African Archaeological Overviews
a. Cambridge History of Africa & UNESCO General History of Africa are great continent wide series to start off with.

b. Africa and Africans in Antiquity has great articles on the origin of Afrasan (popularly known among academics as Afroasiatic languages such as Berber, Semitic, Egyptian & Cushic); the Nile Valley and adjacent desert regions in modern Nubia; and recent discoveries in the Horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Eritea, Djibouti & Somalia)

c. African Archaeology is another great continent wide text.

d. The Archaeology of Africa is another good read.

e. African Connections is a great text with more recent updates.

f. From Hunters to Farmers is a must read.

g. Chronologies in old world archaeology is great for a envisioning a broader archaeological context.

2 Evolution of Humanity and Out of Africa Migrations
a. The Evolution of Modern Human Diversity should be the 1st read in this section as it demonstrates that not only was during certain environmental changes were northern Africa and the Middle East extensions of the Horn of Africa in terms of animal and plant life but that early humans such as the Aterians were as well.

b. The Evolution of Modern Humans in Africa is a useful updated supplement.

c. Crossing Deserts and Avoiding Seas: Aterian North African-European Relations is another good article on the Aterians.

d. Nina's great video on evolution. I recommend paying attention to the 54-56 minutes on the video towards the end.

3 Saharan Archaeology
a. African Herders is an okay text.

b. Secrets of the Sands, I highly recommend.

c. Genesis of the Pharaohs is one of the best works on the Eastern Desert I have ever came across.

d. Egypt Before the Pharaohs likewise is an excellent resource to understanding the Saharan desert origins of the Nile civilizations.

e. Egypt & Nubia: Gifts of the Desert might be the best up to date text on the Saharan origin of pharaonic culture.

f. Cattle Before Crops presents a strong case for the independent domestication of cattle in the Sahara.

g. The Evolution of Human Populations in Arabia has great updated info on the beginnings of the Neolithic in Arabia. The model of populations in the area of the Levant (modern Israel, Syria, Jordan and the Euphrates) spreading the neolithic into Arabia just doesn't match with the evidence. It looks like the Arabian populations either developed their Neolithic independent from the Levant and/or rather it was contact with the much earlier northeast Africa neolithic that stimulated such endeavors.

h. A Holocene prehistoric sequence in the Egyptian Red Sea area likewise shows that goats/sheep were present in the eastern desert of Egypt before they even appeared in the Negev and Sinai of modern Israel and the Arabian peninsula. Given the similar ecological conditions of these arid areas and the conundrum of rationalizing why and how could goats and sheep just magically jump from Jordan into the deserts of Egypt, a simpler explanation could be that it was likewise independently domesticated by the eastern desert population.

e. Environmental Issues in the Mediterranean gives some dates and citations for Neolithic sites in Northern Africa.

f. Ancient Egypt in Africa has informative essays by MacDonald and Wengrow.

g. Behrens essay in Libya Antique argues that the C-Group Nubians were Berber speakers while Becchaus-Gerst not only agrees but she takes it further in stating that the inhabitants of the area south of the 2nd Cataract (Kush) were Cushic speakers which the ancestors of the present Nubian speaking peoples came in contact with.

4 Linguistics

a. Christopher Ehret has some great paper and texts. His latest mentions that contrary to the eastern Saharan, the earliest dates for pottery come the area of modern Mali.

b. Roger Blench has a website dedicated to his full text papers, free. His books are pretty good too.

c. The current consensus among linguists is that Semitic, Cushic, Egyptian and the Berber languages belong to a family of languages usually called Afroasiatic or Afrasan. This family is likewise has a consensus of originating somewhere in northeastern Africa. What is interesting about Edward Lipinski is his arguing for Semitic remaining in northeastern Africa and branching off from the rest of the Afrasan family at such a relatively late date (begins on p. 42). Blench likewise gives a late date for the Semitic split, The Semiticisation of the Arabian Peninsula and the problem of its reflection in the archaeological record but Ehret argues for a much earlier date for the Semitic split.

d. Ongota tackles the issue of locating the Afrasan speaking peoples ancestral homeland.

5 Physical Anthropology

a. Above All, First AND FOREMOST, I highly recommend reading the paradigm shattering, excellent papers by Brace. Clines and Clusters is what I recommend starting out with. Then move on up to The questionable contribution of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age to European craniofacial form.

b. Evolution at the Crossroads: Modern Human Emergence in Western Asia by Holliday is another good read.

c. Ron Pinhasi has an essay demonstrating the North African origins of the Capsian as well as the Oranian (erroneously usually termed Ibero-Mauratania) prehistoric cultures and their affinities to those of the Nile.

d. Barry Kemp has a pretty good overview on physical anthropology as it relates to the Nile populations (p.51-55).

e. Who were the ancient Egyptians? is a good article by Joel Irish.

f. Nancy C. Lovell more than deserves a nod.

g. Hiernaux's text is a classic.

h. The Biological Adaptation of Man to Hot Deserts by Paul Baker is another good but hard to find read.

6 Overview of Historical Ethnographic References

a. Frank Snowden is a must.

b. Curse of Ham is another good read.

c. Slaves and Slavery in Muslim Africa is pretty informative.

d. Romans and Blacks is a good complement to Snowden.

e. Africans and Native Americans is a most highly recommended text.

f. The invention of racism in classical antiquity is an interesting text.

g. I would recommend 1st reading Lewis for the Islamic period and then Uthman for an alternative viewpoint.

7 Nile Overviews

a. Oxford History of Egypt is one of the best works out there.

b. Handbook to Life in Ancient Egypt is another excellent source.

c. An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt deserves a mention.

d. The Egyptians by Morkot is another good read.

e. Now Toby somewhat disappoints me in his otherwise excellent Rise & Fall of Egypt and the Egyptian World. He really backtracks from his earlier, excellent text on the eastern desert. In the earlier text he soundly denounces how earlier Egyptologists distorted egyptian history to fit in line with colonial ideologies. Yet in the more recent works he does the very same thing that he earlier had criticized, still overall they are good reads.

f. Colleen Manassa texts on war and strategy (Tut & Merneptah) are excellent resources to the New Kingdom Libyans.

g. The Nubian Past is an excellent historical overview.

8 Genetics
a. Stevanovitch & Giles work on an upper Egyptian population is worth checking out.

b. Genetic structure of north-west Africa revealed by
STR analysis
by Elena Bosch is quite interesting.

c. But of them all, I find Sarah A. Tishkoff to have some of the interesting papers. She's also done some taped lectures online.

9 Arabian Peninsula Historical Overview
a. The Arabs in antiquity is the best text on pre-Islamic Arabia that I have come across. Interesting info on Kushic Arabs as well.

b. Arabia and the Arabs is an okay supplement to the above mentioned.

10 Canaanites, Carthage & Libyphoenicians
a. Daily Life in Carthage is somewhat dated, but still deserves a nod.

b. Carthage by Serge is by far the BEST English book I have found on Carthage. This cat goes from exploring the legends and archaeological evidence for Canaanites in the Maghrib centuries before Carthage to revealing how influential Carthage was even after it was destroyed. Its interesting to note that the names of famous Amazigh tribes during the Islamic period seem similar to Libyphoenician peoples such as the Azoros (Aoara/Hawara), Macomadus (Masmuda), Zanata (Byzantes), Seli (Shilha). It seems the famous polymath Ibn Khaldun was right, lo those centuries ago. The Amazigh tribes truly can be traced to the descendants of Canaan.

c. Tripolitania is another paradigm buster. Its amazing how the ancients were able to turn arid deserts green!! These people actually knew how to transform the hottest desert in the world into an agricultural breadbasket for the Roman empire. Simply mind boggling.

10.5 The Berbers by Brett is an broad overview in a few hundred pages so its kind of fluff but I'll mention it anyway.

11 Islamic Maghreb
a. A History of the Maghreb is a good overview for the Islamic period.

b. History of North Africa is another overview.

c. A gateway to hell, a gateway to paradise is an excellent text and highly recommended.

d. Ibn Khaldun and the Medieval Maghrib is a great set of essays by Mikey.

e. The Berbers and the Islamic state is A MUST READ.

12 Berberization/Hawwarazation of Islamic Egypt
a. Exploring An Islamic Empire is a great intro to the Fatimids. The Fatimids at times held dominion over much of the Maghreb, Egypt as well as the Levant and the Arabian peninsula. This empire was formed largely by the Amazighs tribes of Sanhaja, Masmuda, at certain times Zanata, most famously the Kutama and the later famous Hawwara of Zuwila (Fezzan). Brett has a good text on the Fatimids as well.

b. A History of the Arabs has more information on certain "Arab" tribes which are really Amazigh in origin. It also has some tidbits explaining how from roughly 1386 to the late 1800s, the Hawwara and related Zentiya speaking Butr Berbers were the de facto rulers of the Nile south of Cairo and extending well into the modern Sudan.

c. The Cambridge History of Egypt is a great overview of Islamic Egypt and gives some mention to the Hawwara.

d. Egyptian Society under Ottoman Rule is another great overview.

e. The Darfur Sultanate has a few bits of info on the Amazigh tribes in that region.

f. I would also recommend Sons of Ishmael and The Pasha's bedouin as complements to MacMichael's text.

g. I can't give enough praise to Jane's thought provoking A Tale of Two Factions.

h. The Mamluks in Egypt pretty rounds everything out.
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To Be Continued.
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