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Old 06-25-2011, 02:03 PM
 
5,510 posts, read 5,011,884 times
Reputation: 1693

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UPDATE 4thd Edition:

1 African Archaeological Overviews
a. Cambridge History of Africa & UNESCO General History of Africa are great continent wide series to start off with.

b. Africa and Africans in Antiquity has great articles on the origin of Afrasan (popularly known among academics as Afroasiatic languages such as Berber, Semitic, Egyptian & Cushic); the Nile Valley and adjacent desert regions in modern Nubia; and recent discoveries in the Horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Eritea, Djibouti & Somalia)

c. African Archaeology is another great continent wide text.

d. The Archaeology of Africa is another good read.

e. African Connections is a great text with more recent updates.

f. From Hunters to Farmers is a must read.

g. Chronologies in old world archaeology is great for a envisioning a broader archaeological context.

2 Evolution of Humanity and Out of Africa Migrations
a. The Evolution of Modern Human Diversity should be the 1st read in this section as it demonstrates that not only was during certain environmental changes were northern Africa and the Middle East extensions of the Horn of Africa in terms of animal and plant life but that early humans such as the Aterians were as well.

b. The Evolution of Modern Humans in Africa is a useful updated supplement.

c. Crossing Deserts and Avoiding Seas: Aterian North African-European Relations is another good article on the Aterians.

d. Nina's great video on evolution. I recommend paying attention to the 54-56 minutes on the video towards the end.

3 Saharan Archaeology
a. African Herders is an okay text.

b. Secrets of the Sands, I highly recommend.

c. Genesis of the Pharaohs is one of the best works on the Eastern Desert I have ever came across.

d. Egypt Before the Pharaohs likewise is an excellent resource to understanding the Saharan desert origins of the Nile civilizations.

e. Egypt & Nubia: Gifts of the Desert might be the best up to date text on the Saharan origin of pharaonic culture.

f. Cattle Before Crops presents a strong case for the independent domestication of cattle in the Sahara.

g. The Evolution of Human Populations in Arabia has great updated info on the beginnings of the Neolithic in Arabia. The model of populations in the area of the Levant (modern Israel, Syria, Jordan and the Euphrates) spreading the neolithic into Arabia just doesn't match with the evidence. It looks like the Arabian populations either developed their Neolithic independent from the Levant and/or rather it was contact with the much earlier northeast Africa neolithic that stimulated such endeavors.

h. A Holocene prehistoric sequence in the Egyptian Red Sea area likewise shows that goats/sheep were present in the eastern desert of Egypt before they even appeared in the Negev and Sinai of modern Israel and the Arabian peninsula. Given the similar ecological conditions of these arid areas and the conundrum of rationalizing why and how could goats and sheep just magically jump from Jordan into the deserts of Egypt, a simpler explanation could be that it was likewise independently domesticated by the eastern desert population.

e. Environmental Issues in the Mediterranean gives some dates and citations for Neolithic sites in Northern Africa.

f. Ancient Egypt in Africa has informative essays by MacDonald and Wengrow.

g. Behrens essay in Libya Antique argues that the C-Group Nubians were Berber speakers while Becchaus-Gerst not only agrees but she takes it further in stating that the inhabitants of the area south of the 2nd Cataract (Kush) were Cushic speakers which the ancestors of the present Nubian speaking peoples came in contact with.

4 Linguistics

a. Christopher Ehret has some great paper and texts. His latest mentions that contrary to the eastern Saharan, the earliest dates for pottery come the area of modern Mali.

b. Roger Blench has a website dedicated to his full text papers, free. His books are pretty good too.

c. The current consensus among linguists is that Semitic, Cushic, Egyptian and the Berber languages belong to a family of languages usually called Afroasiatic or Afrasan. This family is likewise has a consensus of originating somewhere in northeastern Africa. What is interesting about Edward Lipinski is his arguing for Semitic remaining in northeastern Africa and branching off from the rest of the Afrasan family at such a relatively late date (begins on p. 42). Blench likewise gives a late date for the Semitic split, The Semiticisation of the Arabian Peninsula and the problem of its reflection in the archaeological record but Ehret argues for a much earlier date for the Semitic split.

d. Ongota tackles the issue of locating the Afrasan speaking peoples ancestral homeland.

5 Physical Anthropology

a. Above All, First AND FOREMOST, I highly recommend reading the paradigm shattering, excellent papers by Brace. Clines and Clusters is what I recommend starting out with. Then move on up to The questionable contribution of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age to European craniofacial form.

b. Evolution at the Crossroads: Modern Human Emergence in Western Asia by Holliday is another good read.

c. Ron Pinhasi has an essay demonstrating the North African origins of the Capsian as well as the Oranian (erroneously usually termed Ibero-Mauratania) prehistoric cultures and their affinities to those of the Nile.

d. Barry Kemp has a pretty good overview on physical anthropology as it relates to the Nile populations (p.51-55).

e. Who were the ancient Egyptians? is a good article by Joel Irish.

f. Nancy C. Lovell more than deserves a nod.

g. Hiernaux's text is a classic.

h. The Biological Adaptation of Man to Hot Deserts by Paul Baker is another good but hard to find read.

6 Overview of Historical Ethnographic References

a. Frank Snowden is a must.

b. Curse of Ham is another good read.

c. Slaves and Slavery in Muslim Africa is pretty informative.

d. Romans and Blacks is a good complement to Snowden.

e. Africans and Native Americans is a most highly recommended text.

f. The invention of racism in classical antiquity is an interesting text.

g. I would recommend 1st reading Lewis for the Islamic period and then Uthman for an alternative viewpoint.

7 Nile Overviews

a. Oxford History of Egypt is one of the best works out there.

b. Handbook to Life in Ancient Egypt is another excellent source.

c. An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt deserves a mention.

d. The Egyptians by Morkot is another good read.

e. Now Toby somewhat disappoints me in his otherwise excellent Rise & Fall of Egypt and the Egyptian World. He really backtracks from his earlier, excellent text on the eastern desert. In the earlier text he soundly denounces how earlier Egyptologists distorted egyptian history to fit in line with colonial ideologies. Yet in the more recent works he does the very same thing that he earlier had criticized, still overall they are good reads.

f. Colleen Manassa texts on war and strategy (Tut & Merneptah) are excellent resources to the New Kingdom Libyans.

g. The Nubian Past is an excellent historical overview.

8 Genetics
a. Stevanovitch & Giles work on an upper Egyptian population is worth checking out.

b. Genetic structure of north-west Africa revealed by
STR analysis
by Elena Bosch is quite interesting.

c. But of them all, I find Sarah A. Tishkoff to have some of the interesting papers. She's also done some taped lectures online.

9 Arabian Peninsula Historical Overview
a. The Arabs in antiquity is the best text on pre-Islamic Arabia that I have come across. Interesting info on Kushic Arabs as well.

b. Arabia and the Arabs is an okay supplement to the above mentioned.

10 Canaanites, Carthage & Libyphoenicians
a. Daily Life in Carthage is somewhat dated, but still deserves a nod.

b. Carthage by Serge is by far the BEST English book I have found on Carthage. This cat goes from exploring the legends and archaeological evidence for Canaanites in the Maghrib centuries before Carthage to revealing how influential Carthage was even after it was destroyed. Its interesting to note that the names of famous Amazigh tribes during the Islamic period seem similar to Libyphoenician peoples such as the Azoros (Aoara/Hawara), Macomadus (Masmuda), Zanata (Byzantes), Seli (Shilha). It seems the famous polymath Ibn Khaldun was right, lo those centuries ago. The Amazigh tribes truly can be traced to the descendants of Canaan.

c. Tripolitania is another paradigm buster. Its amazing how the ancients were able to turn arid deserts green!! These people actually knew how to transform the hottest desert in the world into an agricultural breadbasket for the Roman empire. Simply mind boggling.

10.5 The Berbers by Brett is an broad overview in a few hundred pages so its kind of fluff but I'll mention it anyway. The Eastern Libyans (http://http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924008200838 - broken link) by Oric Bates is not fluff however and many of the positions he held in his text still is being referenced to this day.

11 Islamic Maghreb
a. A History of the Maghreb is a good overview for the Islamic period.

b. History of North Africa is another overview.

c. A gateway to hell, a gateway to paradise is an excellent text and highly recommended.

d. Ibn Khaldun and the Medieval Maghrib is a great set of essays by Mikey.

e. The Berbers and the Islamic state is A MUST READ.

12 Berberization/Hawwarazation of Islamic Egypt
a. Exploring An Islamic Empire is a great intro to the Fatimids. The Fatimids at times held dominion over much of the Maghreb, Egypt as well as the Levant and the Arabian peninsula. This empire was formed largely by the Amazighs tribes of Sanhaja, Masmuda, at certain times Zanata, most famously the Kutama and the later famous Hawwara of Zuwila (Fezzan). Brett has a good text on the Fatimids as well.

b. A History of the Arabs has more information on certain "Arab" tribes which are really Amazigh in origin. It also has some tidbits explaining how from roughly 1386 to the late 1800s, the Hawwara and related Zentiya speaking Butr Berbers were the de facto rulers of the Nile south of Cairo and extending well into the modern Sudan.

c. The Cambridge History of Egypt is a great overview of Islamic Egypt and gives some mention to the Hawwara.

d. Egyptian Society under Ottoman Rule is another great overview.

e. The Darfur Sultanate has a few bits of info on the Amazigh tribes in that region.

f. I would also recommend Sons of Ishmael and The Pasha's bedouin as complements to MacMichael's text.

g. I can't give enough praise to Jane's thought provoking A Tale of Two Factions.

h. The Mamluks in Egypt pretty rounds everything out.

13 Saharan History Islamic Period
a. 1st and foremost I recommend reading H.T. Norris's excellent book, Saharan Myth & Saga. Norris puts things in historical context as he traces Saharan history through early Arabic texts to modern times. He also does an excellent job in introducing Anglophones to the most powerful tribe in pre-colonial Mauritania history, the descendants of the famous Almoravide Lamtuna: the Anbat Zenaga/Idaw 'Ish. Norris has other great books and articles but I suggest read the text mentioned above first.

b. Next I suggest reading Southern Saharan Scholarship and the Bilad Al-Sudan by Stewart and Islam and Social Order in Mauritania also by Stewart. It is a great complement to Saharan Myth in order to under how western Saharan society evolved over time.

c. The Western Sahara and the Dictionary of the Western Sahara by Tony Hodges are the best English works I have come across dealing with the Western Sahara, north of modern Mauritania. A couple of suggestions though. With Hodges you can skip John Mercer as his works were generally poorly edited but one might want to give his Canary Islands text a glance. 2nd, DO NOT PICK the 2nd edition of Dictionary as Anthony pretty much does a lousy job with his "revisions". 13a-c will help put things in their proper historical context as the upcoming books require them as a prerequisite.

d. I can't praise Ghislaine Lydon's On Trans-Saharan Trails enough. A great introduction to the western Sahara with a focus on the most powerful tribe of the western Sahara as a whole, the Shillah speaking descendants of the Sanhaja tribes of Haskura, Gazula and Lamta: the Tiknah! The Early State also has a great essay on the Gazula and Lamta of southern Morocco and the western Sahara.

e. Bridges Across the Sahara tooks a more pan-Saharan view of the Islamic period.

f. I recommend getting your hands on everything by E. Ann McDougall.

g. And one cannot leave out one of the greatest dynasties in Maghribi history, possibly history as a whole, that of the Saadian. My suggestions are 1st read Socioeconomic Dimensions of Reconquista and Jihad in Morocco then the excellent text: The Hundred Years War for Morocco. Incredible what this dynasty had accomplished given what they had to deal with in so short a time. Most impressive, indeed!

h. Golden Trade of the Moors and Tribes of the Sahara are good complementary pair of texts to read together.

i. Morocco's Saharan Frontiers along with The Western Sahara and the Frontiers of Morocco likewise make a good pair to read together.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

To Be Continued.
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Old 06-27-2011, 12:39 PM
 
5,510 posts, read 5,011,884 times
Reputation: 1693
UPDATE 5th Edition:

1 African Archaeological Overviews
a. Cambridge History of Africa & UNESCO General History of Africa are great continent wide series to start off with.

b. Africa and Africans in Antiquity has great articles on the origin of Afrasan (popularly known among academics as Afroasiatic languages such as Berber, Semitic, Egyptian & Cushic); the Nile Valley and adjacent desert regions in modern Nubia; and recent discoveries in the Horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Eritea, Djibouti & Somalia)

c. African Archaeology is another great continent wide text.

d. The Archaeology of Africa is another good read.

e. African Connections is a great text with more recent updates.

f. From Hunters to Farmers is a must read.

g. Chronologies in old world archaeology is great for a envisioning a broader archaeological context.

2 Evolution of Humanity and Out of Africa Migrations
a. The Evolution of Modern Human Diversity should be the 1st read in this section as it demonstrates that not only was during certain environmental changes were northern Africa and the Middle East extensions of the Horn of Africa in terms of animal and plant life but that early humans such as the Aterians were as well.

b. The Evolution of Modern Humans in Africa is a useful updated supplement.

c. Crossing Deserts and Avoiding Seas: Aterian North African-European Relations is another good article on the Aterians.

d.Nina's great video on evolution. I recommend paying attention to the 54-56 minutes on the video towards the end.

3 Saharan Archaeology
a. African Herders is an okay text.

b. Secrets of the Sands, I highly recommend.

c. Genesis of the Pharaohs is one of the best works on the Eastern Desert I have ever came across.

d. Egypt Before the Pharaohs likewise is an excellent resource to understanding the Saharan desert origins of the Nile civilizations.

e. Egypt & Nubia: Gifts of the Desert might be the best up to date text on the Saharan origin of pharaonic culture.

f. Cattle Before Crops presents a strong case for the independent domestication of cattle in the Sahara.

g. The Evolution of Human Populations in Arabia has great updated info on the beginnings of the Neolithic in Arabia. The model of populations in the area of the Levant (modern Israel, Syria, Jordan and the Euphrates) spreading the neolithic into Arabia just doesn't match with the evidence. It looks like the Arabian populations either developed their Neolithic independent from the Levant and/or rather it was contact with the much earlier northeast Africa neolithic that stimulated such endeavors.

h. A Holocene prehistoric sequence in the Egyptian Red Sea area likewise shows that goats/sheep were present in the eastern desert of Egypt before they even appeared in the Negev and Sinai of modern Israel and the Arabian peninsula. Given the similar ecological conditions of these arid areas and the conundrum of rationalizing why and how could goats and sheep just magically jump from Jordan into the deserts of Egypt, a simpler explanation could be that it was likewise independently domesticated by the eastern desert population.

e. Environmental Issues in the Mediterranean gives some dates and citations for Neolithic sites in Northern Africa.

f. Ancient Egypt in Africa has informative essays by MacDonald and Wengrow.

g. Behrens essay in Libya Antique argues that the C-Group Nubians were Berber speakers while Becchaus-Gerst not only agrees but she takes it further in stating that the inhabitants of the area south of the 2nd Cataract (Kush) were Cushic speakers which the ancestors of the present Nubian speaking peoples came in contact with.

4 Linguistics

a. Christopher Ehret has some great paper and texts. His latest mentions that contrary to the eastern Saharan, the earliest dates for pottery come the area of modern Mali.

b. Roger Blench has a website dedicated to his full text papers, free. His books are pretty good too.

c. The current consensus among linguists is that Semitic, Cushic, Egyptian and the Berber languages belong to a family of languages usually called Afroasiatic or Afrasan. This family is likewise has a consensus of originating somewhere in northeastern Africa. What is interesting about Edward Lipinski is his arguing for Semitic remaining in northeastern Africa and branching off from the rest of the Afrasan family at such a relatively late date (begins on p. 42). Blench likewise gives a late date for the Semitic split, The Semiticisation of the Arabian Peninsula and the problem of its reflection in the archaeological record but Ehret argues for a much earlier date for the Semitic split.

d. Ongota tackles the issue of locating the Afrasan speaking peoples ancestral homeland.

5 Physical Anthropology

a. Above All, First AND FOREMOST, I highly recommend reading the paradigm shattering, excellent papers by Brace. Clines and Clusters is what I recommend starting out with. Then move on up to The questionable contribution of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age to European craniofacial form.

b. Evolution at the Crossroads: Modern Human Emergence in Western Asia by Holliday is another good read.

c. Ron Pinhasi has an essay demonstrating the North African origins of the Capsian as well as the Oranian (erroneously usually termed Ibero-Mauratania) prehistoric cultures and their affinities to those of the Nile.

d. Barry Kemp has a pretty good overview on physical anthropology as it relates to the Nile populations (p.51-55).

e. Who were the ancient Egyptians? is a good article by Joel Irish.

f. Nancy C. Lovell more than deserves a nod.

g. Hiernaux's text is a classic.

h. The Biological Adaptation of Man to Hot Deserts by Paul Baker is another good but hard to find read.

6 Overview of Historical Ethnographic References

a. Frank Snowden is a must.

b. Curse of Ham is another good read.

c. Slaves and Slavery in Muslim Africa is pretty informative.

d. Romans and Blacks is a good complement to Snowden.

e. Africans and Native Americans is a most highly recommended text.

f. The invention of racism in classical antiquity is an interesting text.

g. I would recommend 1st reading Lewis for the Islamic period and then Uthman for an alternative viewpoint.

7 Nile Overviews

a. Oxford History of Egypt is one of the best works out there.

b. Handbook to Life in Ancient Egypt is another excellent source.

c. An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt deserves a mention.

d. The Egyptians by Morkot is another good read.

e. Now Toby somewhat disappoints me in his otherwise excellent Rise & Fall of Egypt and the Egyptian World. He really backtracks from his earlier, excellent text on the eastern desert. In the earlier text he soundly denounces how earlier Egyptologists distorted egyptian history to fit in line with colonial ideologies. Yet in the more recent works he does the very same thing that he earlier had criticized, still overall they are good reads.

f. Colleen Manassa texts on war and strategy (Tut & Merneptah) are excellent resources to the New Kingdom Libyans.

g. The Nubian Past is an excellent historical overview.

h. Can't leave out this great series: Encounters With Ancient Egypt.

i. Another good read courtesy of Morkot, The black pharaohs.

j. From Slave to Pharaoh is another good read from Redford.

8 Genetics
a. Stevanovitch & Giles work on an upper Egyptian population is worth checking out.

b. Genetic structure of north-west Africa revealed by
STR analysis
by Elena Bosch is quite interesting.

c. But of them all, I find Sarah A. Tishkoff to have some of the interesting papers. She's also done some taped lectures online.

9 Arabian Peninsula Historical Overview
a. The Arabs in antiquity is the best text on pre-Islamic Arabia that I have come across. Interesting info on Kushic Arabs as well.

b. Arabia and the Arabs is an okay supplement to the above mentioned.

10 Canaanites, Carthage & Libyphoenicians
a. Daily Life in Carthage is somewhat dated, but still deserves a nod.

b. Carthage by Serge is by far the BEST English book I have found on Carthage. This cat goes from exploring the legends and archaeological evidence for Canaanites in the Maghrib centuries before Carthage to revealing how influential Carthage was even after it was destroyed. Its interesting to note that the names of famous Amazigh tribes during the Islamic period seem similar to Libyphoenician peoples such as the Azoros (Aoara/Hawara), Macomadus (Masmuda), Zanata (Byzantes), Seli (Shilha). It seems the famous polymath Ibn Khaldun was right, lo those centuries ago. The Amazigh tribes truly can be traced to the descendants of Canaan.

c. Tripolitania is another paradigm buster. Its amazing how the ancients were able to turn arid deserts green!! These people actually knew how to transform the hottest desert in the world into an agricultural breadbasket for the Roman empire. Simply mind boggling.

10.5 The Berbers by Brett is an broad overview in a few hundred pages so its kind of fluff but I'll mention it anyway. [http://books.google.com/books?id=D3z...CC4Q6AEwAQ]The Eastern Libyans[/url] by Oric Bates is not fluff however and many of the positions he held in his text still is being referenced to this day.

11 Islamic Maghreb
a. A History of the Maghreb is a good overview for the Islamic period.

b. History of North Africa is another overview.

c. A gateway to hell, a gateway to paradise is an excellent text and highly recommended.

d. Ibn Khaldun and the Medieval Maghrib is a great set of essays by Mikey.

e. The Berbers and the Islamic state is A MUST READ.

12 Berberization/Hawwarazation of Islamic Egypt
a. Exploring An Islamic Empire is a great intro to the Fatimids. The Fatimids at times held dominion over much of the Maghreb, Egypt as well as the Levant and the Arabian peninsula. This empire was formed largely by the Amazighs tribes of Sanhaja, Masmuda, at certain times Zanata, most famously the Kutama and the later famous Hawwara of Zuwila (Fezzan). Brett has a good text on the Fatimids as well.

b. A History of the Arabs has more information on certain "Arab" tribes which are really Amazigh in origin. It also has some tidbits explaining how from roughly 1386 to the late 1800s, the Hawwara and related Zentiya speaking Butr Berbers were the de facto rulers of the Nile south of Cairo and extending well into the modern Sudan.

c. The Cambridge History of Egypt is a great overview of Islamic Egypt and gives some mention to the Hawwara.

d. Egyptian Society under Ottoman Rule is another great overview.

e. The Darfur Sultanate has a few bits of info on the Amazigh tribes in that region.

f. I would also recommend Sons of Ishmael and The Pasha's bedouin as complements to MacMichael's text.

g. I can't give enough praise to Jane's thought provoking A Tale of Two Factions.

h. The Mamluks in Egypt pretty rounds everything out.

13 Saharan History Islamic Period
a. 1st and foremost I recommend reading H.T. Norris's excellent book, [http://books.google.com/books?id=5no...6AEwAA]Saharan Myth & Saga[/url]. Norris puts things in historical context as he traces Saharan history through early Arabic texts to modern times. He also does an excellent job in introducing Anglophones to the most powerful tribe in pre-colonial Mauritania history, the descendants of the famous Almoravide Lamtuna: the Anbat Zenaga/Idaw 'Ish. Norris has other great books and articles but I suggest read the text mentioned above first.

b. Next I suggest reading [http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q...e800c]Southern Saharan Scholarship and the Bilad Al-Sudan[/url] by Stewart and Islam and [http://books.google.com/books?id=0mU...Q6AEwAA]Social Order in Mauritania[/url] also by Stewart. It is a great complement to Saharan Myth in order to under how western Saharan society evolved over time.

c. [http://books.google.com/books?id=DnS...CC0Q6AEwAA]The Western Sahara[/url] and [http://books.google.com/books?id=QZR...CDMQ6AEwAg]the Dictionary of the Western Sahara[/url] by Tony Hodges are the best English works I have come across dealing with the Western Sahara, north of modern Mauritania. A couple of suggestions though. With Hodges you can skip John Mercer as his works were generally poorly edited but one might want to give his Canary Islands text a glance. 2nd, DO NOT PICK the 2nd edition of Dictionary as Anthony pretty much does a lousy job with his "revisions". 13a-c will help put things in their proper historical context as the upcoming books require them as a prerequisite.

d. I can't praise Ghislaine Lydon's [http://books.google.com/books?id=ufD...0CDQQ6AEwAA]On Trans-Saharan Trails[/url] enough. A great introduction to the western Sahara with a focus on the most powerful tribe of the western Sahara as a whole, the Shillah speaking descendants of the Sanhaja tribes of Haskura, Gazula and Lamta: the Tiknah! [http://books.google.com/books?id=ec8...&q&f=false]The Early State[/url] also has a great essay on the Gazula and Lamta of southern Morocco and the western Sahara.

e. [http://books.google.com/books?id=SoI...6AEwAA]Bridges Across the Sahara [/url]tooks a more pan-Saharan view of the Islamic period.

f. I recommend getting your hands on everything by E. Ann McDougall.

g. And one cannot leave out one of the greatest dynasties in Maghribi history, possibly history as a whole, that of the Saadian. My suggestions are 1st read [http://www.google.com/search?tbm=bks...]Socioeconomic Dimensions of Reconquista and Jihad in Morocco[/url] then the excellent text: [http://books.google.com/books?id=Vld...CCoQ6AEwAA]The Hundred Years War for Morocco[/url]. Incredible what this dynasty had accomplished given what they had to deal with in so short a time. Most impressive, indeed! I would also say Realm of the saint and Rebel between spirit and law are great for putting things in context.

h. [http://books.google.com/books?id=jNi...f=false]Golden Trade of the Moors[/url] and Tribes of the Sahara are good complementary pair of texts to read together.

i. Morocco's Saharan Frontiers along with The Western Sahara and the Frontiers of Morocco likewise make a good pair to read together.

13.5 Moorings, I wold only recommend with caution as the author really projects modern notions backwards in time, something which normally disqualify this text for me, but he has a damn good and extensive bibliography, so I'll throw him in anyways.

14 Relevant Areas of Sub-Saharan Africa
a. Ethiopia: Greater Ethiopia along with The making of modern Ethiopia are my suggested reads.

b. Landlords and Strangers is a good source on the area around and south of the Zenaga (Senegal) River.

c. The Negroland Revisited likewise is recommended for the area around the Niger River.

d. Social History of Timbuktu is a text I highly regard.

e. Arabic medieval inscriptions from the Republic of Mali is this section's major paradigm buster of the so-called Sahara/Sub-Saharan false divide.

15 Nile/Classical Greco-Roman Interaction
a. A great trio of authors for understanding the Nile's inspiration and influence for the development of Hellene civilization, one should look at Dirk L. Couprie, Robert Hahn as well as Gerard Naddaf.

b. Another high quality text is The gift of the Nile.

c. Since Egyptian religion, particularly the Isis cult was widely popular during the classical period I would say Religion in Roman Egypt and Isis in the Graeco-Roman world.

16 For the Biblically Inclined
a. Egypt, Canaan and Israel is a classic.

b. The rescue of Jerusalem is another great read.

c. Yurco has the most thought provoking essay in Exodus: the Egyptian evidence.

d. And this section could not be complete without any mention of Moses the Egyptian

17 Moorish Spain/Andalusia

a. Islamic and Christian Spain in the early Middle Ages and From Muslim fortress to Christian castle by Glick are worth checking out.

b. Exotic nation is an excellent work.

c. The Moriscos of Spain has interesting figures on the number of people expulsed from Iberia.

d. L. P. Harvey also has some informative texts on Moorish Spain.

18 Barbary Period
a. Christian slaves, Muslim masters is a good text to start out with.

b. White gold I highly recommend.

c. Piracy, slavery, and redemption is very interesting.

d. Cervantes in Algiers rounds out this section.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

To Be Continued.

Last edited by kovert; 06-27-2011 at 01:23 PM..
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Old 06-30-2011, 03:05 PM
 
5,510 posts, read 5,011,884 times
Reputation: 1693
UPDATE 6th Edition:

1 African Archaeological Overviews
a. Cambridge History of Africa & UNESCO General History of Africa are great continent wide series to start off with.

b. Africa and Africans in Antiquity has great articles on the origin of Afrasan (popularly known among academics as Afroasiatic languages such as Berber, Semitic, Egyptian & Cushic); the Nile Valley and adjacent desert regions in modern Nubia; and recent discoveries in the Horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Eritea, Djibouti & Somalia)

c. African Archaeology is another great continent wide text.

d. The Archaeology of Africa is another good read.

e. African Connections is a great text with more recent updates.

f. From Hunters to Farmers is a must read.

g. Chronologies in old world archaeology is great for a envisioning a broader archaeological context.

2 Evolution of Humanity and Out of Africa Migrations
a. The Evolution of Modern Human Diversity should be the 1st read in this section as it demonstrates that not only was during certain environmental changes were northern Africa and the Middle East extensions of the Horn of Africa in terms of animal and plant life but that early humans such as the Aterians were as well.

b. The Evolution of Modern Humans in Africa is a useful updated supplement.

c. Crossing Deserts and Avoiding Seas: Aterian North African-European Relations is another good article on the Aterians.

d.Nina's great video on evolution. I recommend paying attention to the 54-56 minutes on the video towards the end.

3 Saharan Archaeology
a. African Herders is an okay text.

b. Secrets of the Sands, I highly recommend.

c. Genesis of the Pharaohs is one of the best works on the Eastern Desert I have ever came across.

d. Egypt Before the Pharaohs likewise is an excellent resource to understanding the Saharan desert origins of the Nile civilizations.

e. Egypt & Nubia: Gifts of the Desert might be the best up to date text on the Saharan origin of pharaonic culture.

f. Cattle Before Crops presents a strong case for the independent domestication of cattle in the Sahara.

g. The Evolution of Human Populations in Arabia has great updated info on the beginnings of the Neolithic in Arabia. The model of populations in the area of the Levant (modern Israel, Syria, Jordan and the Euphrates) spreading the neolithic into Arabia just doesn't match with the evidence. It looks like the Arabian populations either developed their Neolithic independent from the Levant and/or rather it was contact with the much earlier northeast Africa neolithic that stimulated such endeavors.

h. A Holocene prehistoric sequence in the Egyptian Red Sea area likewise shows that goats/sheep were present in the eastern desert of Egypt before they even appeared in the Negev and Sinai of modern Israel and the Arabian peninsula. Given the similar ecological conditions of these arid areas and the conundrum of rationalizing why and how could goats and sheep just magically jump from Jordan into the deserts of Egypt, a simpler explanation could be that it was likewise independently domesticated by the eastern desert population.

e. Environmental Issues in the Mediterranean gives some dates and citations for Neolithic sites in Northern Africa.

f. Ancient Egypt in Africa has informative essays by MacDonald and Wengrow.

g. Behrens essay in Libya Antique argues that the C-Group Nubians were Berber speakers while Becchaus-Gerst not only agrees but she takes it further in stating that the inhabitants of the area south of the 2nd Cataract (Kush) were Cushic speakers which the ancestors of the present Nubian speaking peoples came in contact with.

4 Linguistics

a. Christopher Ehret has some great paper and texts. His latest mentions that contrary to the eastern Saharan, the earliest dates for pottery come the area of modern Mali.

b. Roger Blench has a website dedicated to his full text papers, free. His books are pretty good too.

c. The current consensus among linguists is that Semitic, Cushic, Egyptian and the Berber languages belong to a family of languages usually called Afroasiatic or Afrasan. This family is likewise has a consensus of originating somewhere in northeastern Africa. What is interesting about Edward Lipinski is his arguing for Semitic remaining in northeastern Africa and branching off from the rest of the Afrasan family at such a relatively late date (begins on p. 42). Blench likewise gives a late date for the Semitic split, The Semiticisation of the Arabian Peninsula and the problem of its reflection in the archaeological record but Ehret argues for a much earlier date for the Semitic split.

d. Ongota tackles the issue of locating the Afrasan speaking peoples ancestral homeland.

5 Physical Anthropology

a. Above All, First AND FOREMOST, I highly recommend reading the paradigm shattering, excellent papers by Brace. Clines and Clusters is what I recommend starting out with. Then move on up to The questionable contribution of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age to European craniofacial form.

b. Evolution at the Crossroads: Modern Human Emergence in Western Asia by Holliday is another good read.

c. Ron Pinhasi has an essay demonstrating the North African origins of the Capsian as well as the Oranian (erroneously usually termed Ibero-Mauratania) prehistoric cultures and their affinities to those of the Nile.

d. Barry Kemp has a pretty good overview on physical anthropology as it relates to the Nile populations (p.51-55).

e. Who were the ancient Egyptians? is a good article by Joel Irish.

f. Nancy C. Lovell more than deserves a nod.

g. Hiernaux's text is a classic.

h. The Biological Adaptation of Man to Hot Deserts by Paul Baker is another good but hard to find read.

6 Overview of Historical Ethnographic References

a. Frank Snowden is a must.

b. Curse of Ham is another good read.

c. Slaves and Slavery in Muslim Africa is pretty informative.

d. Romans and Blacks is a good complement to Snowden.

e. Africans and Native Americans is a most highly recommended text.

f. The invention of racism in classical antiquity is an interesting text.

g. I would recommend 1st reading Lewis for the Islamic period and then Uthman for an alternative viewpoint.

7 Nile Overviews

a. Oxford History of Egypt is one of the best works out there.

b. Handbook to Life in Ancient Egypt is another excellent source.

c. An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt deserves a mention.

d. The Egyptians by Morkot is another good read.

e. Now Toby somewhat disappoints me in his otherwise excellent Rise & Fall of Egypt and the Egyptian World. He really backtracks from his earlier, excellent text on the eastern desert. In the earlier text he soundly denounces how earlier Egyptologists distorted egyptian history to fit in line with colonial ideologies. Yet in the more recent works he does the very same thing that he earlier had criticized, still overall they are good reads.

f. Colleen Manassa texts on war and strategy (Tut & Merneptah) are excellent resources to the New Kingdom Libyans.

g. The Nubian Past is an excellent historical overview.

h. Can't leave out this great series: Encounters With Ancient Egypt.

i. Another good read courtesy of Morkot, The black pharaohs.

j. From Slave to Pharaoh is another good read from Redford.

8 Genetics
a. Stevanovitch & Giles work on an upper Egyptian population is worth checking out.

b. Genetic structure of north-west Africa revealed by
STR analysis
by Elena Bosch is quite interesting.

c. But of them all, I find Sarah A. Tishkoff to have some of the interesting papers. She's also done some taped lectures online.

9 Arabian Peninsula Historical Overview
a. The Arabs in antiquity is the best text on pre-Islamic Arabia that I have come across. Interesting info on Kushic Arabs as well.

b. Arabia and the Arabs is an okay supplement to the above mentioned.

10 Canaanites, Carthage & Libyphoenicians
a. Daily Life in Carthage is somewhat dated, but still deserves a nod.

b. Carthage by Serge is by far the BEST English book I have found on Carthage. This cat goes from exploring the legends and archaeological evidence for Canaanites in the Maghrib centuries before Carthage to revealing how influential Carthage was even after it was destroyed. Its interesting to note that the names of famous Amazigh tribes during the Islamic period seem similar to Libyphoenician peoples such as the Azoros (Aoara/Hawara), Macomadus (Masmuda), Zanata (Byzantes), Seli (Shilha). It seems the famous polymath Ibn Khaldun was right, lo those centuries ago. The Amazigh tribes truly can be traced to the descendants of Canaan.

c. Tripolitania is another paradigm buster. Its amazing how the ancients were able to turn arid deserts green!! These people actually knew how to transform the hottest desert in the world into an agricultural breadbasket for the Roman empire. Simply mind boggling.

10.5 The Berbers by Brett is an broad overview in a few hundred pages so its kind of fluff but I'll mention it anyway. [The]The eastern Libyans: an essay - Google Books Eastern Libyans[/url] by Oric Bates is not fluff however and many of the positions he held in his text still is being referenced to this day.

11 Islamic Maghreb
a. A History of the Maghreb is a good overview for the Islamic period.

b. History of North Africa is another overview.

c. A gateway to hell, a gateway to paradise is an excellent text and highly recommended.

d. Ibn Khaldun and the Medieval Maghrib is a great set of essays by Mikey.

e. The Berbers and the Islamic state is A MUST READ.

12 Berberization/Hawwarazation of Islamic Egypt
a. Exploring An Islamic Empire is a great intro to the Fatimids. The Fatimids at times held dominion over much of the Maghreb, Egypt as well as the Levant and the Arabian peninsula. This empire was formed largely by the Amazighs tribes of Sanhaja, Masmuda, at certain times Zanata, most famously the Kutama and the later famous Hawwara of Zuwila (Fezzan). Brett has a good text on the Fatimids as well.

b. A History of the Arabs has more information on certain "Arab" tribes which are really Amazigh in origin. It also has some tidbits explaining how from roughly 1386 to the late 1800s, the Hawwara and related Zentiya speaking Butr Berbers were the de facto rulers of the Nile south of Cairo and extending well into the modern Sudan.

c. The Cambridge History of Egypt is a great overview of Islamic Egypt and gives some mention to the Hawwara.

d. Egyptian Society under Ottoman Rule is another great overview.

e. The Darfur Sultanate has a few bits of info on the Amazigh tribes in that region.

f. I would also recommend Sons of Ishmael and The Pasha's bedouin as complements to MacMichael's text.

g. I can't give enough praise to Jane's thought provoking A Tale of Two Factions.

h. The Mamluks in Egypt pretty rounds everything out.

13 Saharan History Islamic Period
a. 1st and foremost I recommend reading H.T. Norris's excellent book, Saharan myth and saga. Norris puts things in historical context as he traces Saharan history through early Arabic texts to modern times. He also does an excellent job in introducing Anglophones to the most powerful tribe in pre-colonial Mauritania history, the descendants of the famous Almoravide Lamtuna: the Anbat Zenaga/Idaw 'Ish. Norris has other great books and articles but I suggest read the text mentioned above first.

b. Next I suggest reading Southern Saharan Scholarship and the Bilad Al-Sudan by Stewart and Islam and Social Order in Mauritania also by Stewart. It is a great complement to Saharan Myth in order to under how western Saharan society evolved over time.

c. The Western Sahara and the Dictionary of the Western Sahara by Tony Hodges are the best English works I have come across dealing with the Western Sahara, north of modern Mauritania. A couple of suggestions though. With Hodges you can skip John Mercer as his works were generally poorly edited but one might want to give his Canary Islands text a glance. 2nd, DO NOT PICK the 2nd edition of Dictionary as Anthony pretty much does a lousy job with his "revisions". 13a-c will help put things in their proper historical context as the upcoming books require them as a prerequisite.

d. I can't praise Ghislaine Lydon's On Trans-Saharan Trails enough. A great introduction to the western Sahara with a focus on the most powerful tribe of the western Sahara as a whole, the Shillah speaking descendants of the Sanhaja tribes of Haskura, Gazula and Lamta: the Tiknah! The Early State also has a great essay on the Gazula and Lamta of southern Morocco and the western Sahara.

e. Bridges Across the Sahara tooks a more pan-Saharan view of the Islamic period.

f. I recommend getting your hands on everything by E. Ann McDougall.

g. And one cannot leave out one of the greatest dynasties in Maghribi history, possibly history as a whole, that of the Saadian. My suggestions are 1st read Socioeconomic Dimensions of Reconquista and Jihad in Morocco then the excellent text: The Hundred Years War for Morocco. Incredible what this dynasty had accomplished given what they had to deal with in so short a time. Most impressive, indeed! I would also say Realm of the saint and Rebel between spirit and law are great for putting things in context.

h. The golden trade of the Moors and Tribes of the Sahara are good complementary pair of texts to read together.

i. Morocco's Saharan Frontiers along with The Western Sahara and the Frontiers of Morocco likewise make a good pair to read together.

13.5 Moorings, I wold only recommend with caution as the author really projects modern notions backwards in time, something which normally disqualify this text for me, but he has a damn good and extensive bibliography, so I'll throw him in anyways.

14 Relevant Areas of Sub-Saharan Africa
a. Ethiopia: Greater Ethiopia along with The making of modern Ethiopia are my suggested reads.

b. Landlords and Strangers is a good source on the area around and south of the Zenaga (Senegal) River.

c. The Negroland Revisited likewise is recommended for the area around the Niger River.

d. Social History of Timbuktu is a text I highly regard.

e. Arabic medieval inscriptions from the Republic of Mali is this section's major paradigm buster of the so-called Sahara/Sub-Saharan false divide.

15 Nile/Classical Greco-Roman Interaction
a. A great trio of authors for understanding the Nile's inspiration and influence for the development of Hellene civilization, one should look at Dirk L. Couprie, Robert Hahn as well as Gerard Naddaf.

b. Another high quality text is The gift of the Nile.

c. Since Egyptian religion, particularly the Isis cult was widely popular during the classical period I would say Religion in Roman Egypt and Isis in the Graeco-Roman world.

16 For the Biblically Inclined
a. Egypt, Canaan and Israel is a classic.

b. The rescue of Jerusalem is another great read.

c. Yurco has the most thought provoking essay in Exodus: the Egyptian evidence.

d. And this section could not be complete without any mention of Moses the Egyptian

17 Moorish Spain/Andalusia

a. Islamic and Christian Spain in the early Middle Ages and From Muslim fortress to Christian castle by Glick are worth checking out.

b. Exotic nation is an excellent work.

c. The Moriscos of Spain has interesting figures on the number of people expulsed from Iberia.

d. L. P. Harvey also has some informative texts on Moorish Spain.

18 Barbary Period
a. Christian slaves, Muslim masters is a good text to start out with.

b. White gold I highly recommend.

c. Piracy, slavery, and redemption is very interesting.

d. Cervantes in Algiers rounds out this section.

19 The Legacy of Colonialism on the Study and Interpretation of Archaeology and History
a. One cannot start this section without mentioning Black Athena by Martin Bernal.

b. Yurco, Brace, Bard and Snowden have excellent essays in Black Athena Revisited.

c. I would also recommend the Wisdom of Egypt from the Encounters Ancient Egypt series mentioned above.

d. Imperialism, Power, and Identity is an excellent read by Mattingly.

e. And outside of Bernal, the most paradigm shatterer of this section is Egyptology: the missing millennium.

f. Hopefully Jill will come out with a Coptic and Demotic textually based history of the post pharaonic Nile but for now, her Christianity in the land of the pharaohs will due.

g. Ann completely destroys the myth of the "blonde Berbers" as well as the old and false but still widely perpetuated stereotype of "Arab nomads" vs. "mountain Berbers" in Barbary and enlightenment.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Will thats about it for my recommendations. Of course there other works like Mattingly's text on the Fazzan/Garamantes one of the most powerful Saharan kingdoms throughout history. Unfortunately I have not been able to get my hands on it, so I can't give an honest recommendation. Its been a long time since I 1st started this thread to now.

I have studied and learned a lot in that interval. There is still much to be explored, discovered and debated on.

NEVER THE END.

Last edited by kovert; 06-30-2011 at 03:14 PM..
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Old 07-05-2011, 01:16 PM
 
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UPDATE 7th Edition:

1 African Archaeological Overviews
a. Cambridge History of Africa & UNESCO General History of Africa are great continent wide series to start off with.

b. Africa and Africans in Antiquity has great articles on the origin of Afrasan (popularly known among academics as Afroasiatic languages such as Berber, Semitic, Egyptian & Cushic); the Nile Valley and adjacent desert regions in modern Nubia; and recent discoveries in the Horn of Africa (Ethiopia, Eritea, Djibouti & Somalia)

c. African Archaeology is another great continent wide text.

d. The Archaeology of Africa is another good read.

e. African Connections is a great text with more recent updates.

f. From Hunters to Farmers is a must read.

g. Chronologies in old world archaeology is great for a envisioning a broader archaeological context.

2 Evolution of Humanity and Out of Africa Migrations
a. The Evolution of Modern Human Diversity should be the 1st read in this section as it demonstrates that not only was during certain environmental changes were northern Africa and the Middle East extensions of the Horn of Africa in terms of animal and plant life but that early humans such as the Aterians were as well.

b. The Evolution of Modern Humans in Africa is a useful updated supplement.

c. Crossing Deserts and Avoiding Seas: Aterian North African-European Relations is another good article on the Aterians.

d.Nina's great video on evolution. I recommend paying attention to the 54-56 minutes on the video towards the end.

3 Saharan Archaeology
a. African Herders is an okay text.

b. Secrets of the Sands, I highly recommend.

c. Genesis of the Pharaohs is one of the best works on the Eastern Desert I have ever came across.

d. Egypt Before the Pharaohs likewise is an excellent resource to understanding the Saharan desert origins of the Nile civilizations.

e. Egypt & Nubia: Gifts of the Desert might be the best up to date text on the Saharan origin of pharaonic culture.

f. Cattle Before Crops presents a strong case for the independent domestication of cattle in the Sahara.

g. The Evolution of Human Populations in Arabia has great updated info on the beginnings of the Neolithic in Arabia. The model of populations in the area of the Levant (modern Israel, Syria, Jordan and the Euphrates) spreading the neolithic into Arabia just doesn't match with the evidence. It looks like the Arabian populations either developed their Neolithic independent from the Levant and/or rather it was contact with the much earlier northeast Africa neolithic that stimulated such endeavors.

h. A Holocene prehistoric sequence in the Egyptian Red Sea area likewise shows that goats/sheep were present in the eastern desert of Egypt before they even appeared in the Negev and Sinai of modern Israel and the Arabian peninsula. Given the similar ecological conditions of these arid areas and the conundrum of rationalizing why and how could goats and sheep just magically jump from Jordan into the deserts of Egypt, a simpler explanation could be that it was likewise independently domesticated by the eastern desert population.

e. Environmental Issues in the Mediterranean gives some dates and citations for Neolithic sites in Northern Africa.

f. Ancient Egypt in Africa has informative essays by MacDonald and Wengrow.

g. Behrens essay in Libya Antique argues that the C-Group Nubians were Berber speakers while Becchaus-Gerst not only agrees but she takes it further in stating that the inhabitants of the area south of the 2nd Cataract (Kush) were Cushic speakers which the ancestors of the present Nubian speaking peoples came in contact with.

4 Linguistics

a. Christopher Ehret has some great paper and texts. His latest mentions that contrary to the eastern Saharan, the earliest dates for pottery come the area of modern Mali.

b. Roger Blench has a website dedicated to his full text papers, free. His books are pretty good too.

c. The current consensus among linguists is that Semitic, Cushic, Egyptian and the Berber languages belong to a family of languages usually called Afroasiatic or Afrasan. This family is likewise has a consensus of originating somewhere in northeastern Africa. What is interesting about Edward Lipinski is his arguing for Semitic remaining in northeastern Africa and branching off from the rest of the Afrasan family at such a relatively late date (begins on p. 42). Blench likewise gives a late date for the Semitic split, The Semiticisation of the Arabian Peninsula and the problem of its reflection in the archaeological record but Ehret argues for a much earlier date for the Semitic split.

d. Ongota tackles the issue of locating the Afrasan speaking peoples ancestral homeland.

5 Physical Anthropology

a. Above All, First AND FOREMOST, I highly recommend reading the paradigm shattering, excellent papers by Brace. Clines and Clusters is what I recommend starting out with. Then move on up to The questionable contribution of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age to European craniofacial form.

b. Evolution at the Crossroads: Modern Human Emergence in Western Asia by Holliday is another good read.

c. Ron Pinhasi has an essay demonstrating the North African origins of the Capsian as well as the Oranian (erroneously usually termed Ibero-Mauratania) prehistoric cultures and their affinities to those of the Nile.

d. Barry Kemp has a pretty good overview on physical anthropology as it relates to the Nile populations (p.51-55).

e. Who were the ancient Egyptians? is a good article by Joel Irish.

f. Nancy C. Lovell more than deserves a nod.

g. Hiernaux's text is a classic.

h. The Biological Adaptation of Man to Hot Deserts by Paul Baker is another good but hard to find read.

6 Overview of Historical Ethnographic References

a. Frank Snowden is a must.

b. Curse of Ham is another good read.

c. Slaves and Slavery in Muslim Africa is pretty informative.

d. Romans and Blacks is a good complement to Snowden.

e. Africans and Native Americans is a most highly recommended text.

f. The invention of racism in classical antiquity is an interesting text.

g. I would recommend 1st reading Lewis for the Islamic period and then Uthman for an alternative viewpoint.

h. Race in early modern England is another great read.

7 Nile Overviews

a. Oxford History of Egypt is one of the best works out there.

b. Handbook to Life in Ancient Egypt is another excellent source.

c. An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt deserves a mention.

d. The Egyptians by Morkot is another good read.

e. Now Toby somewhat disappoints me in his otherwise excellent Rise & Fall of Egypt and the Egyptian World. He really backtracks from his earlier, excellent text on the eastern desert. In the earlier text he soundly denounces how earlier Egyptologists distorted egyptian history to fit in line with colonial ideologies. Yet in the more recent works he does the very same thing that he earlier had criticized, still overall they are good reads.

f. Colleen Manassa texts on war and strategy (Tut & Merneptah) are excellent resources to the New Kingdom Libyans.

g. The Nubian Past is an excellent historical overview.

h. Can't leave out this great series: Encounters With Ancient Egypt.

i. Another good read courtesy of Morkot, The black pharaohs.

j. From Slave to Pharaoh is another good read from Redford.

k. Ancient Nubia: Egypt's rival in Africa deserves a look over.

l. Egypt in Africa has some great essays, especially by Frank Yurco.

m. A history of ancient Egypt also has some info on some of the earliest attempts of agriculture that are unfortunately left out and ignored by many in the academic community because it challenges long held assumptions.

8 Genetics
a. Stevanovitch & Giles work on an upper Egyptian population is worth checking out.

b. Genetic structure of north-west Africa revealed by
STR analysis
by Elena Bosch is quite interesting.

c. But of them all, I find Sarah A. Tishkoff to have some of the interesting papers. She's also done some taped lectures online.

d. Can't believe I almost left out The history and geography of human genes. This excerpt I linked to has interesting info on the Khoisan people of southern Africa. They have have so-called "Mongloid racial traits" such as the particular eye shapes along with the so-called Mongloid spot. Yet they possess more "southwestern Asian genes" than the populations of the Horn of Africa. Plus it is mentioned that there are existing groups of Khoisan-like peoples still within the Horn.

e. Human Diversity and its History by Harpending has more info on the Khoisan.

f. Also check out Spencer Wells: The Journey of Man - A Genetic Odyssey for the part on the Khoisan. The video could be found online.

9 Arabian Peninsula Historical Overview
a. The Arabs in antiquity is the best text on pre-Islamic Arabia that I have come across. Interesting info on Kushic Arabs as well.

b. Arabia and the Arabs is an okay supplement to the above mentioned.

10 Canaanites, Carthage & Libyphoenicians
a. Daily Life in Carthage is somewhat dated, but still deserves a nod.

b. Carthage by Serge is by far the BEST English book I have found on Carthage. This cat goes from exploring the legends and archaeological evidence for Canaanites in the Maghrib centuries before Carthage to revealing how influential Carthage was even after it was destroyed. Its interesting to note that the names of famous Amazigh tribes during the Islamic period seem similar to Libyphoenician peoples such as the Azoros (Aoara/Hawara), Macomadus (Masmuda), Zanata (Byzantes), Seli (Shilha). It seems the famous polymath Ibn Khaldun was right, lo those centuries ago. The Amazigh tribes truly can be traced to the descendants of Canaan.

c. Tripolitania is another paradigm buster. Its amazing how the ancients were able to turn arid deserts green!! These people actually knew how to transform the hottest desert in the world into an agricultural breadbasket for the Roman empire. Simply mind boggling.

10.5 The Berbers by Brett is an broad overview in a few hundred pages so its kind of fluff but I'll mention it anyway. The eastern Libyans: an essay by Oric Bates is not fluff however and many of the positions he held in his text still is being referenced to this day.

11 Islamic Maghreb
a. A History of the Maghreb is a good overview for the Islamic period.

b. History of North Africa is another overview.

c. A gateway to hell, a gateway to paradise is an excellent text and highly recommended.

d. Ibn Khaldun and the Medieval Maghrib is a great set of essays by Mikey.

e. The Berbers and the Islamic state is A MUST READ.

12 Berberization/Hawwarazation of Islamic Egypt
a. Exploring An Islamic Empire is a great intro to the Fatimids. The Fatimids at times held dominion over much of the Maghreb, Egypt as well as the Levant and the Arabian peninsula. This empire was formed largely by the Amazighs tribes of Sanhaja, Masmuda, at certain times Zanata, most famously the Kutama and the later famous Hawwara of Zuwila (Fezzan). Brett has a good text on the Fatimids as well.

b. A History of the Arabs has more information on certain "Arab" tribes which are really Amazigh in origin. It also has some tidbits explaining how from roughly 1386 to the late 1800s, the Hawwara and related Zentiya speaking Butr Berbers were the de facto rulers of the Nile south of Cairo and extending well into the modern Sudan. The Tribes of Northern and Central Kordof√°n also by MacMichael is pretty good.

c. The Cambridge History of Egypt is a great overview of Islamic Egypt and gives some mention to the Hawwara.

d. Egyptian Society under Ottoman Rule is another great overview.

e. The Darfur Sultanate has a few bits of info on the Amazigh tribes in that region.

f. I would also recommend Sons of Ishmael and The Pasha's bedouin as complements to MacMichael's text.

g. I can't give enough praise to Jane's thought provoking A Tale of Two Factions.

h. The Mamluks in Egypt pretty rounds everything out.

13 Saharan History Islamic Period
a. 1st and foremost I recommend reading H.T. Norris's excellent book, Saharan myth and saga. Norris puts things in historical context as he traces Saharan history through early Arabic texts to modern times. He also does an excellent job in introducing Anglophones to the most powerful tribe in pre-colonial Mauritania history, the descendants of the famous Almoravide Lamtuna: the Anbat Zenaga/Idaw 'Ish. Norris has other great books and articles but I suggest read the text mentioned above first.

b. Next I suggest reading Southern Saharan Scholarship and the Bilad Al-Sudan by Stewart and Islam and Social Order in Mauritania also by Stewart. It is a great complement to Saharan Myth in order to under how western Saharan society evolved over time.

c. The Western Sahara and the Dictionary of the Western Sahara by Tony Hodges are the best English works I have come across dealing with the Western Sahara, north of modern Mauritania. A couple of suggestions though. With Hodges you can skip John Mercer as his works were generally poorly edited but one might want to give his Canary Islands text a glance. 2nd, DO NOT PICK the 2nd edition of Dictionary as Anthony pretty much does a lousy job with his "revisions". 13a-c will help put things in their proper historical context as the upcoming books require them as a prerequisite.

d. I can't praise Ghislaine Lydon's On Trans-Saharan Trails enough. A great introduction to the western Sahara with a focus on the most powerful tribe of the western Sahara as a whole, the Shillah speaking descendants of the Sanhaja tribes of Haskura, Gazula and Lamta: the Tiknah! The Early State also has a great essay on the Gazula and Lamta of southern Morocco and the western Sahara.

e. Bridges Across the Sahara tooks a more pan-Saharan view of the Islamic period.

f. I recommend getting your hands on everything by E. Ann McDougall.

g. And one cannot leave out one of the greatest dynasties in Maghribi history, possibly history as a whole, that of the Saadian. My suggestions are 1st read Socioeconomic Dimensions of Reconquista and Jihad in Morocco then the excellent text: The Hundred Years War for Morocco. Incredible what this dynasty had accomplished given what they had to deal with in so short a time. Most impressive, indeed! I would also say Realm of the saint and Rebel between spirit and law are great for putting things in context.

h. The golden trade of the Moors and Tribes of the Sahara are good complementary pair of texts to read together.

i. Morocco's Saharan Frontiers along with The Western Sahara and the Frontiers of Morocco likewise make a good pair to read together.

13.5 Moorings, I wold only recommend with caution as the author really projects modern notions backwards in time, something which normally disqualify this text for me, but he has a damn good and extensive bibliography, so I'll throw him in anyways.

14 Relevant Areas of Sub-Saharan Africa
a. Horn of Africa: Greater Ethiopia along with The making of modern Ethiopia are my suggested reads. Culture and customs of Somalia has some rare info on Khoisan like people in modern Somalia. The reason I have been mentioning the Khoisan is that the various "pygmies" that are known from Egyptian history to be brought from the land of Punt, are what I belive to be Khoisan like people. Khoisan are still known for their spiritual systems and I am of the opinion this was also the case in ancient Egyptian times. I recommend checking out The So-Called" Mine of Punt" and Its Location by Balanda along with The elusive land of Punt revisited by Kenneth Kitchen.

b. Landlords and Strangers is a good source on the area around and south of the Zenaga (Senegal) River.

c. The Negroland Revisited likewise is recommended for the area around the Niger River.

d. Social History of Timbuktu is a text I highly regard.

e. Arabic medieval inscriptions from the Republic of Mali is this section's major paradigm buster of the so-called Sahara/Sub-Saharan false divide.

f. Envisioning the worst has more info on the Khoisan.

15 Nile/Classical Greco-Roman Interaction
a. A great trio of authors for understanding the Nile's inspiration and influence for the development of Hellene civilization, one should look at Dirk L. Couprie, Robert Hahn as well as Gerard Naddaf.

b. Another high quality text is The gift of the Nile.

c. Since Egyptian religion, particularly the Isis cult was widely popular during the classical period I would say Religion in Roman Egypt and Isis in the Graeco-Roman world.

16 For the Biblically Inclined
a. Egypt, Canaan and Israel is a classic.

b. The rescue of Jerusalem is another great read.

c. Yurco has the most thought provoking essay in Exodus: the Egyptian evidence.

d. And this section could not be complete without any mention of Moses the Egyptian

17 Moorish Spain/Andalusia

a. Islamic and Christian Spain in the early Middle Ages and From Muslim fortress to Christian castle by Glick are worth checking out.

b. Exotic nation is an excellent work.

c. The Moriscos of Spain has interesting figures on the number of people expulsed from Iberia.

d. L. P. Harvey also has some informative texts on Moorish Spain.

18 Barbary Period
a. Christian slaves, Muslim masters is a good text to start out with.

b. White gold I highly recommend.

c. Piracy, slavery, and redemption is very interesting.

d. Cervantes in Algiers rounds out this section.

19 The Legacy of Colonialism on the Study and Interpretation of Archaeology and History
a. One cannot start this section without mentioning Black Athena by Martin Bernal.

b. Yurco, Brace, Bard and Snowden have excellent essays in Black Athena Revisited.

c. I would also recommend the Wisdom of Egypt from the Encounters Ancient Egypt series mentioned above.

d. Imperialism, Power, and Identity is an excellent read by Mattingly.

e. And outside of Bernal, the most paradigm shatterer of this section is Egyptology: the missing millennium.

f. Hopefully Jill will come out with a Coptic and Demotic textually based history of the post pharaonic Nile but for now, her Christianity in the land of the pharaohs will due.

g. Ann completely destroys the myth of the "blonde Berbers" as well as the old and false but still widely perpetuated stereotype of "Arab nomads" vs. "mountain Berbers" in Barbary and enlightenment.

h. Rereading the Black Legend has some interesting info concerning the events in Iberia durin the early modern period and the origins of the racialist justifications for colonialism.

Last edited by kovert; 07-05-2011 at 01:41 PM..
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Old 07-06-2011, 01:22 PM
 
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A few minor additions:

12.5 Corpus of early Arabic sources for West African history

&

17e. The non-Jewish origins of the Sephardic Jews

Well, that officially completes the list.

Given my own experience, about inquiring about the Nile civilizations on this forum, I hope those that have a sincere interest will find my recommendations helpful.

Its incredible the idiotic and ignorant statements I have seen over the years about the Saharan peoples and their civilization.

One of the most ridiculous being that of the no nothing, know it all New Ager in the Cleo thread.

Its not just their ignorance that makes them look ridiculous but also their determination to remain ignorant even when you try to expose them to info that has a more grounded, empirical footing.

There is so much information that has discovered about the Sahara, so much that the history books can't keep up. Long held and cherished paradigms and conceptual frameworks are being shattered and withering away in their death throes.

I can understand to an extent how the general public could still be largely unaware of the strides made in archaeology over the decades.

Most of the texts and articles I recommended are not cheap. Some of these books are well over a 100 bucks. This largely restricts those that have access to this information to a tiny minority. Realistically, how many people would spend over 50 bucks on a book over buying tickets to a game or a concert. Also, given the time and effort people put into their work, I don't blame them for charging so much for their books.

But luckily with services like Google Books and Google Scholar, the general public can still at least preview some of the most innovative and thought provoking work out their before spending their money.

Remember history does not belong to any conquerors or winners, HISTORY BELONGS TO THOSE WHO CHERISH AND PROTECT IT.

Idealistic Realist
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Old 07-07-2011, 01:28 PM
 
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Quote:
13.5 Moorings, I wold only recommend with caution as the author really projects modern notions backwards in time, something which normally disqualify this text for me, but he has a damn good and extensive bibliography, so I'll throw him in anyways.
Almost forgot, Newitt's The Portuguese in West Africa and A history of Portuguese overseas expansion should be read to balance Josiah's overactive imagination.
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Old 07-09-2011, 12:09 PM
 
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Last minute addition:

13.5 Studies in West African Islamic History has great info on how the Saadian dynasty in Morocco led to the resurgence of the Branes/Bernus Amazighs (non-Saharan Sanhaja and Masmuda). It also mentions traditions of Andalusis refugee migrations into the modern western Sahara and Mauritania as well as the Kabylie mountains and adjacent regions. A good read indeed.

Also I have been looking the longest for The Legacy of the Andalusian Berbers in the 14th century Maghreb by Maya Schatzmiller.

If anyone could help me out locating it, I'd appreciate it.

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Old 07-12-2011, 01:50 PM
 
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Another last minute addition:

3 Saharan Archaeology

h. Chloroplast DNA microsatellite analysis supports a polyphyletic origin for barley by Molina is worth checking out for different perspectives on the development of agriculture outside of southwest Asia.
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Old 07-19-2011, 01:08 PM
 
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This is not quite historical but is quite an interesting read:

Religion and folk cosmology is by an author who although seems to have a pan-Arab and strongly Islamic worldview shows how in modern and particularly rural Egypt, Sufi concepts seemed to have been blended with pharaonic remnants to produce rural folk culture. Highly recommended.

By the way, given the recent batch of idiotic posts in the Cleo thread, I was reminded of why I decided to start this one.

Along the same lines, I was reminded of the help I received in being able to access the material presented in this thread.

I would like to encourage any and everyone to thank your librarians. A lot of times they feel unappreciated and when a patron shows a sincere respect and appreciation for the work they do, it really has an effect on them.

They will go out of their way in order to help such a patron in getting books and articles.

I would also say, if you enjoyed a book, there is nothing wrong with sending a thank you and/or words of encouragement in an email.

They just might respond back to show their appreciation, that their work is acknowledged. Especially with education and libraries being 1st and foremost on budgetary chopping blocks, librarians and academic authors need all the encouragement they can get.
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Old 07-26-2011, 01:18 PM
 
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Originally Posted by kovert View Post
This is not quite historical but is quite an interesting read:

Religion and folk cosmology is by an author who although seems to have a pan-Arab and strongly Islamic worldview shows how in modern and particularly rural Egypt, Sufi concepts seemed to have been blended with pharaonic remnants to produce rural folk culture. Highly recommended.
The fellāhīn of Upper Egypt makes a good complement for the above text.

I also feel Disowning slavery is a pretty good read and worth checking out.

Last edited by kovert; 07-26-2011 at 01:32 PM..
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