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Old 08-06-2011, 01:30 PM
 
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This excerpt is a welcome addition to section 5:Physical Anthropology

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Originally Posted by kovert View Post
Analysis of hair samples of mummies from Semma South shows that the hair of Nubian mummies and those of the best preserved Egyptian mummies were most similar to each other. I would recommend FIRST reading Brace's Clines and Clusters from the Physical Anthropology section of the Libya thread, as he most excellently explains the physical characteristics of North & Northeastern African populations.

Also most mummies that have preserved hair are not only actually reddish rather than blonde but they were not blonde in life. "Mummy no. 70. (p. 342.) environmental conditions may bleach a dark brown or black hair color to that of a blonde or, more commonly, reddish hue."

The above was from The Scientific Study of Mummies and not from some fly by nite, questionable wikipedia editor.

And the below is from actual scholars and academics doing work on an archaeological site.

"Whilst certain environments such as those producing bog bodies are known to yield hair of a red-brown color, in part because of the breakdown of organic matter and presence of humic acids which impart a brown color to recovered remains, it has commonly been assumed that this happens to all archaeological hair. This concept has been perpetuated by popular nicknames such as "Ginger"--affectionately given to the Predynastic burial with red hair on display in the mummy rooms at the British Museum."

"All hair contains a mixture in varying concentration of both black-brown eumelanin and red-yellow phaeomelanin pigments, which are susceptible to differential chemical change under certain extreme burial conditions (for example wet reducing conditions, or dry oxidising conditions). Importantly, phaeomelanin is much more stable to environmental conditions than eumelanin, hence the reactions occurring in the burial environment favor the preservation of phaeomelanin, revealing and enhancing the red/ yellow color of hairs containing this pigment. Color changes occur slowly under dry oxidising conditions, such as in the burials in sand at Hierakonpolis."

Once again: "Careful brushing later in the lab revealed the reddish eye lashes and eye brows, and even remnants of a 5 o'clock shadow on the chin. This is not to say that he was a true blonde. It is known that over time hair will turn blonde or reddish, but apparently only certain conditions, as our visiting hair specialist Andrew Wilson of Bradford University, UK, explains."

And this is from a dig lead by Renee Friedman, who has done excellent work, forcing mainstream Egyptology to finally acknowledge the Saharan origins of the Nile civilizations.
And this book is great for providing more context and background info for the period of Ottoman rule in North Africa in particular. Not all of the Ottomans were by origin ethnic Turks and this text provides some detail on the history of the people who were valued as military slaves of many an Islamic ruler.

A People Born to Slavery
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Old 08-29-2011, 11:46 AM
 
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Originally Posted by kovert View Post
4 Linguistics

c. The current consensus among linguists is that Semitic, Cushic, Egyptian and the Berber languages belong to a family of languages usually called Afroasiatic or Afrasan. This family is likewise has a consensus of originating somewhere in northeastern Africa. What is interesting about Edward Lipinski is his arguing for Semitic remaining in northeastern Africa and branching off from the rest of the Afrasan family at such a relatively late date (begins on p. 42). Blench likewise gives a late date for the Semitic split, The Semiticisation of the Arabian Peninsula and the problem of its reflection in the archaeological record but Ehret argues for a much earlier date for the Semitic split.
A good paper to read about the origins of the Semitic branch of the Afrasian family of languages is Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of Semitic languages identifies an Early Bronze Age origin of Semitic in the Near East. Ehret has modified his position about an earlier split of Semitic from the other Afrasian branches and is more in line with those of Blench and Lipinski.

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Originally Posted by kovert View Post
12 Berberization/Hawwarazation of Islamic Egypt
al-Damurdashi's Chronicle of Egypt, 1688-1755 likewise has excellent information on the Hawwara who dominated southern Egypt and the northern Sudan for 500 years.

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Originally Posted by kovert View Post
13 Saharan History Islamic Period
The pastoral Tuareg is an okay resource to learn about the veiled Tamashek.
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Originally Posted by kovert View Post
13.5
  • Desert frontier is a great source for info on the early modern period of what is now the nation of Mauritania.
  • Timbuktu and the Songhay Empire offers excellent, updated translations of early modern texts relating to the subject of the title. Highly recommended!!!
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Originally Posted by kovert View Post
14 Relevant Areas of Sub-Saharan Africa
The meanings of Timbuktu has excellent up to date information not only on the area of medieval Tinbuktu, but also many other areas, below the Sahara.
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Old 08-29-2011, 11:50 AM
 
Location: Aloverton
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Originally Posted by kovert View Post
The meanings of Timbuktu has excellent up to date information not only on the area of medieval Tinbuktu, but also many other areas, below the Sahara.
What do you think of the legend that the place took its name from a lady who had a well? While it sounds apocryphal to me on the face of it, usually when people make up a legend over time, it's something more glorifying and stupendous and supernatural. A relatively mundane legend is rather easier to credit, I find.
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Old 08-29-2011, 11:52 AM
 
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I just came across an interesting tidbit of history in the making.

If this link does not work, try this one.
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Old 08-29-2011, 12:04 PM
 
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Originally Posted by j_k_k View Post
What do you think of the legend that the place took its name from a lady who had a well? While it sounds apocryphal to me on the face of it, usually when people make up a legend over time, it's something more glorifying and stupendous and supernatural. A relatively mundane legend is rather easier to credit, I find.
Although most authors, using Arabic chronicles, credit Timbuktu from the Maghsharen and/or Massufa (they are represented in modern times by the Innusufen and Kel Geres/Gheres tribes among the veiled Tamashek),based on the work of one of the authors in the meanings text, (his name just slipped from me, but its in one of the early chapters), there is archaeological evidence for extensive settlements in that area going back into the B.C.E. periods.

Still, oral traditions often contain a kernel of truth and can be quite helpful since given the region under discussion, written texts can be far and few.
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Old 08-29-2011, 11:52 PM
 
Location: Old Mother Idaho
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I'm curious about the modern cultures of N. Africa.
Can you recommend a couple of sources that would be good overviews?

Last edited by banjomike; 08-30-2011 at 12:07 AM..
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Old 08-30-2011, 12:29 PM
 
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Originally Posted by banjomike View Post
I'm curious about the modern cultures of N. Africa.

Can you recommend a couple of sources that would be good overviews?
, uh that's exactly what my most recent posts have been about?

Quote:
Originally Posted by j_k_k View Post
What do you think of the legend that the place took its name from a lady who had a well? While it sounds apocryphal to me on the face of it, usually when people make up a legend over time, it's something more glorifying and stupendous and supernatural. A relatively mundane legend is rather easier to credit, I find.
Speaking of legends, J, once again, if you have the time and inclination, there are some Spanish excerpts that are of interest to me.

They are from Luis Marmol, who expanded on the description of Africa, 1st given by his fellow Andalusi, Leo Africanus.

The excerpts begin at the end of page 151 to the beginning of 155 (denoted by the letters A-E).

Once again, if you have the time, I would appreciate your expert assistance.

Last edited by kovert; 08-30-2011 at 12:40 PM..
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Old 08-31-2011, 03:16 AM
 
Location: Aloverton
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Quote:
Originally Posted by kovert View Post
Speaking of legends, J, once again, if you have the time and inclination, there are some Spanish excerpts that are of interest to me.

They are from Luis Marmol, who expanded on the description of Africa, 1st given by his fellow Andalusi, Leo Africanus.

The excerpts begin at the end of page 151 to the beginning of 155 (denoted by the letters A-E).

Once again, if you have the time, I would appreciate your expert assistance.
Yeah, I can help (though I wouldn't call it expert assistance by any means). It'll be easier, as Spanish is my best foreign language. Might take a few days between new driveway pour, fiscal recordkeeping catchup and whatnot, but I'll get to it. I'm old, so if I forget, give me a nudge if you would.
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Old 08-31-2011, 02:25 PM
 
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Originally Posted by j_k_k View Post
Yeah, I can help (though I wouldn't call it expert assistance by any means). It'll be easier, as Spanish is my best foreign language. Might take a few days between new driveway pour, fiscal recordkeeping catchup and whatnot, but I'll get to it. I'm old, so if I forget, give me a nudge if you would.
Thanks a lot buddy and as for your being "old", your mind is far more fit and sound compared to those loons in the other thread.

Don't sell yourself short.
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Old 09-01-2011, 12:46 AM
 
Location: Old Mother Idaho
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Sorry, Kovert...
I meant to ask where the first place to start would be best. A good first book.
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