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Old 01-08-2014, 03:10 AM
 
Location: Mena, Arkansas
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Does the Sun replenish itself? Does anyone REALLY know? Or is the answer a theory?
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Old 01-08-2014, 01:20 PM
 
Location: Southern Oregon
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Replenish itself wit what, hydrogen? Seeing how the sun is in a constant state of depleting its hydrogen, I would have to speculate that the Sun isn't perpetual. One day it will have exhausted its hydrogen and then will start to convert helium. On its way to become a red giant (burning helium) it (which will take a few million years to do so) the brightness of the sun will have increases by about 2 times, this will cause a rapid run away greenhouse effect on our planet and we will most likely end up looking like Venus just before the sun completely destroys us.

It this just a theory, astronomers have been witnessing these events on other stars for a few hundred years.
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Old 01-08-2014, 02:11 PM
bjh
Status: "Keep calm and carry on." (set 8 days ago)
 
Location: Memphis - home of the king
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The sun will eventually burn off all its fuel - in about 6 billion years. Article ---> Life of the Sun
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Old 01-08-2014, 02:12 PM
 
Location: Not.here
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Nothing in existence is eternal..... nothing!
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Old 01-08-2014, 04:22 PM
 
Location: Mena, Arkansas
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[quote=Terryj;32930427]Replenish itself wit what, hydrogen? Seeing how the sun is in a constant state of depleting its hydrogen,

Where is the hydrogen coming from? One would think that it would all be burned up by now. If ya get helium from burning hydrogen, what do ya get when you burn helium?
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Old 01-09-2014, 02:45 AM
 
Location: Sol System
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Stars form from clouds of molecluar hydrogen , the hydrogen and helium in the clouds was formed shortly after the Big Bang. The clouds are disturbed by electromagnetic radiation(stellar winds , starlight) , or gravitational disturbances(passing stars , planets , singularities , et al.). When this occurs , matter distribution is unbalanced , keep in mind all objects exert gravitational force no matter the size , therefore dust grains begin to coalesce. The mass of grains/molecular hydrogen begins contracting due to the greater gravity of the ever increasing mass. In the center of the mass , temperatures increase to the point of fusion , and a T Tauri star initially forms. 10 to 25 Myr later , the characteristic shell of dust and gas is blown away from the aforementioned stellar winds , and the star settles into the main sequence. Dependent upon mass , it will range from spectral type O(blue to deep blue/violet) , B (bluish white to light blue) , A (white to bluish white) , F (white to yellowish white) , G (yellow white to yellow) , K (yellow orange to orange) , M (rorange red to red). There are other classes , but for the purpose intended , I will discuss main sequence stars. The stars process hydrogen to helium through either proton - proton chain reaction , or proton - electron. Depending on mass/spectral type , they remain on the main sequence anywhere from 10 to 25Myr for O and B type , to as long as 10 trillion for low mass red dwarf M stars. They steadily become brighter as well , as the hydrogen is slowly depleted. When the supply in the core is depleted , helium fusion begins , and the star moves to the subgiant branch of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. This diagram is basically a chart of stellar evolution. The helium fusion requires higher temperatures than those for hydrogen fusion , and the balance of the star's gravity versus the outward radiation pressure is destabilized , with radiation pressure winning in the case of low mass K to A type stars. For larger stars , the process occurs differently , I'll digress due to the initial question. At this point , the star continues to expand , until the resultant radius is upwards of 2 orders of magnitude larger than it initially was. After another 10 to 100 million years of the expansion phase , shells of matter are pushed from the star , due to the decrease in gravity , and increase in radiation pressure. The shells expand outward , retaining their ambient temperature and red hue , to form what is known as a planetary nebula. The name is derived from 18/19th century astronomers viewing them through telescopes that would be akin to a decent pair of binoculars today. They interpreted them as planets , due to the low resolution of telescopes at that time. The nebula expands until it dissipates into the interstellar medium. Eventually , it too will add to the following generation of stars , and so on. The core may achieve helium fusion , but after this step , the mass of the core is insufficient to increase temperatures enough for carbon fusion , so it will remain as a type D white dwarf , about the size of Earth , or a tad larger , slowly cooling until it reaches temperatures similar to that of the interstellar medium. At this point , it will become a black dwarf , essentially a black , cold stellar core. It may or may not retain remnants of any planets that survive the red giant/planetary nebula phase. The total time from formation to 'death' , ranges from 10 to 15Gyr. Sol is currently at the 5 billion year mark , and will reach the expansion phase in another 5.7 Gyr. Nothing that we currently know of will last forever , as you see it. Time is relative , and the lifetime of stars would seem like several forevers , but on cosmic timescales , it is the blink of an eye. Hope this helps.
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Old 01-09-2014, 03:05 AM
 
Location: 'greater' Buffalo, NY
3,644 posts, read 2,335,671 times
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Quote:
Originally Posted by etacarinae View Post
Stars form from clouds of molecluar hydrogen , the hydrogen and helium in the clouds was formed shortly after the Big Bang. The clouds are disturbed by electromagnetic radiation(stellar winds , starlight) , or gravitational disturbances(passing stars , planets , singularities , et al.). When this occurs , matter distribution is unbalanced , keep in mind all objects exert gravitational force no matter the size , therefore dust grains begin to coalesce. The mass of grains/molecular hydrogen begins contracting due to the greater gravity of the ever increasing mass. In the center of the mass , temperatures increase to the point of fusion , and a T Tauri star initially forms. 10 to 25 Myr later , the characteristic shell of dust and gas is blown away from the aforementioned stellar winds , and the star settles into the main sequence. Dependent upon mass , it will range from spectral type O(blue to deep blue/violet) , B (bluish white to light blue) , A (white to bluish white) , F (white to yellowish white) , G (yellow white to yellow) , K (yellow orange to orange) , M (rorange red to red). There are other classes , but for the purpose intended , I will discuss main sequence stars. The stars process hydrogen to helium through either proton - proton chain reaction , or proton - electron. Depending on mass/spectral type , they remain on the main sequence anywhere from 10 to 25Myr for O and B type , to as long as 10 trillion for low mass red dwarf M stars. They steadily become brighter as well , as the hydrogen is slowly depleted. When the supply in the core is depleted , helium fusion begins , and the star moves to the subgiant branch of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. This diagram is basically a chart of stellar evolution. The helium fusion requires higher temperatures than those for hydrogen fusion , and the balance of the star's gravity versus the outward radiation pressure is destabilized , with radiation pressure winning in the case of low mass K to A type stars. For larger stars , the process occurs differently , I'll digress due to the initial question. At this point , the star continues to expand , until the resultant radius is upwards of 2 orders of magnitude larger than it initially was. After another 10 to 100 million years of the expansion phase , shells of matter are pushed from the star , due to the decrease in gravity , and increase in radiation pressure. The shells expand outward , retaining their ambient temperature and red hue , to form what is known as a planetary nebula. The name is derived from 18/19th century astronomers viewing them through telescopes that would be akin to a decent pair of binoculars today. They interpreted them as planets , due to the low resolution of telescopes at that time. The nebula expands until it dissipates into the interstellar medium. Eventually , it too will add to the following generation of stars , and so on. The core may achieve helium fusion , but after this step , the mass of the core is insufficient to increase temperatures enough for carbon fusion , so it will remain as a type D white dwarf , about the size of Earth , or a tad larger , slowly cooling until it reaches temperatures similar to that of the interstellar medium. At this point , it will become a black dwarf , essentially a black , cold stellar core. It may or may not retain remnants of any planets that survive the red giant/planetary nebula phase. The total time from formation to 'death' , ranges from 10 to 15Gyr. Sol is currently at the 5 billion year mark , and will reach the expansion phase in another 5.7 Gyr. Nothing that we currently know of will last forever , as you see it. Time is relative , and the lifetime of stars would seem like several forevers , but on cosmic timescales , it is the blink of an eye. Hope this helps.
Great post.
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Old 01-09-2014, 10:19 AM
 
884 posts, read 1,244,183 times
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Quote:
Originally Posted by bjh View Post
The sun will eventually burn off all its fuel - in about 6 billion years. Article ---> Life of the Sun
Oh great, so i'll never get to see the Cubs win a world series.
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Old 01-09-2014, 11:52 AM
 
Location: Mena, Arkansas
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Originally Posted by Matt Marcinkiewicz View Post
Great post.
That is a great post and thanks. I understand just enough to have had my question answered.

Useasdirected.....I feel the same way about the Astros.
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Old 01-09-2014, 11:57 AM
 
Location: SWUS
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[quote=slingshot;32933541]
Quote:
Originally Posted by Terryj View Post
Replenish itself wit what, hydrogen? Seeing how the sun is in a constant state of depleting its hydrogen,

Where is the hydrogen coming from? One would think that it would all be burned up by now. If ya get helium from burning hydrogen, what do ya get when you burn helium?
The sun is very large, and is considered "medium size" for a star. You could fit a lot of hydrogen (and helium) in that space, and you figure in compression/pressure due to size and mass and there you go. Fuel enough for several billion years, at least.
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