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Old 07-15-2018, 10:35 AM
 
Location: London, U.K.
88 posts, read 36,250 times
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The Paran (Paranatellona) and Sun Calendar.
The Egyptian Calendar.


The civil calendar that the ancient Egyptians used was 365 days long and although they knew that this was approx. 6 hours too short, it was against religious practices to add a leap year every four years. In 238 BC, the Greek Ptolemaic rulers (From a general in Alexander the Great's army) saw that the Egyptian Calendar was nearly an accurate measure of the year, and thus decreed that every 4th year should be 366 days long, however the general populace didn't accept the ruling due to superstition, hence it was put on hold till the introduction of the Julian Calendar on 1st January 0045 BC.


Most general readers think the heliacal rising of Sirius denoted the start of every year in the Egyptian Calendar, which simply wasn't the case, as it was a "Wandering Year", and held in place by their knowledge, and complicated adjustments involving the Moon etc. The Egyptians knew that Sirius would rise with the Sun in the same location after 1460 years, a period called a "SOTHIC CYCLE", and like a Millennium to them.


An early mention of Sirius can be found in Hesiod, Work and Days...."But when Orion and Sirius are come into the mid-heaven, and rosy-fingered dawn see's Arcturus, then cut off the grape clusters Perses, and bring them home".....the clue is rosy-fingered dawn,early star alignments weren't made by a cosmic rising Sun, being half way on the horizon in the East, mainly because the Sun would be too bright to see stars at that point, they were calculating with the Sun below the horizon, when a slight colour of orange appears in the East, however by 0045 BC, mathematics had advanced , it was possible to chart the Sun being half way on the horizon, and although you wouldn't see Sirius in the dawn sky as it was too bright, they probably knew that Sirius was rising too, being a Cosmic Alignment.


I'm getting tired so will continue tomorrow!
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Old 07-16-2018, 01:42 AM
 
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It would be great if you could provide some sources. this is interesting material.
thank you.
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Old 07-16-2018, 07:12 AM
 
Location: London, U.K.
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Hi Margaret Bartle,


There are links to the Sothic Cycle and Hesiod, Work and Days below:-


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sothic_cycle


Hesiod, Works and Days, line 609
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Old 07-16-2018, 08:14 AM
 
Location: London, U.K.
88 posts, read 36,250 times
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So the Julian Calendar started on 1st January 0045 BC, the Sothic Cycle wasn't used as a leap year was added, this means if an alignment had been put into the Julian Calendar, we would see it, until it was moved on by Precession , a link defining Paranatellona can be found below:-


http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10705808



We now see that how early humans valued the stars can be different to when mathematical skills kick in, some historians have conceded to the Roman writer Censorinus, that wrote that the Egyptian New Year fell on July 20th in the Julian Calendar in 139 AD, which was a heliacal rising of Sirius in Egypt, but this was by eye, not a Cosmic Alignment, the Egyptian priests liked the old ways, that didn't involve leap years.

However some say it is possible to calculate the original date of the Egyptian calendar by using the Sothic cycle, i find it dubious, but previous dates have been mentioned, 2,782 BC and 4,242 BC.


This cycle was first noticed by Eduard Meyer in 1904, who then combed known Egyptian inscriptions and written material to find any mention of the calendar dates when Sirius rose with the Sun. He found six of them, on which much of the conventional chronology is based, other researchers find this method dubious. You must make up your own mind, this is difficult for me to comment, the much latter paran alignments that are cosmic are easier and involve the Sun being half way on the horizon, any eye observations are liable to have a differing set of values in ancient times.


The calendar of 365 days long started on the "1st of Thoth", and had five days added at the end of 12 months of 30 days, where birthdays of the gods were celebrated like Osiris and Isis, but it must be remembered not to compare with our Gregorian Calendar too much and Christ's birthday, our calendar ends in the winter and the Egyptian one ended in the summer!


It has been argued that before the joining of lower and upper Egypt around 3,150 BC, the countries developed their own calendars. In lower Egypt the winter solstice was regarded as the birth of their Sun God RA, in upper Egypt the year was measured as the time between the flooding of the Nile, which was important for farming communities living along the banks, where they noticed Sirius, the Isis Star rising with the Sun.
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Old 07-16-2018, 10:22 AM
 
Location: London, U.K.
88 posts, read 36,250 times
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THE ROMAN CALENDAR.


The original Roman calendar is thought to have been a lunar calendar, based on one of the Greek calendars, the ancient Greeks started the day from sunset to sunset, the Romans and Egyptians started the day at sunrise. The ancient Roman calendar was closely linked to the science of the sky and gods and Claudius Ptolemaeus, and was used throughout the life time of the democratic period in Rome.


Ptolemy's teachings were based on those of Plato and Pythagoras, who thought that the Earth was the center of the universe, and the Sun, Moon and known planets all revolved around a stationary Earth at the center of the cosmos. The Romans divided the day into 24 hours, 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of the night, obviously this didn't run from midnight, but sunrise to sunrise.
The Roman hour varied according to the season, during the summer solstice, when the period of daylight is longer than the night, each hour was 1 hour 16 minutes long in Britain, during the short days of the winter solstice when the daylight was shorter, an hour was approx. 44 minutes!
Within the Roman empire the hour was adjusted according to the difference in daylight time, the exact hour of 60 minutes only happened around the equinox's, the vernal equinox and the autumnal equinox, a complicated set of water clocks were used to keep approx. time.


We still retain 3 days from ancient Rome being Dies Saturn being Saturday, Dies Lunae become Moon day and Monday and finally Dies Solis become SUNday, other days of the week become entwined with viking mythology.
Like most of the ancient Mediterranean world, the Romans believed that each day of the week were ruled by a god, which was related to the known planets being Saturn, Jupiter, Sun, Mars Mercury Venus and the Moon.
Apart from a Moon calendar not being accurate, the ancient Roman calendar was subject to political tinkering by the Roman senate.....no wonder Julius Caesar was looking for an "Accurate Calendar", as he was a student of astronomy, this leads us to the far more interesting "JULIAN CALENDAR", i hope my observances will interest you, as there is hidden religious practices and gods within the structure, i'll start tomorrow.
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Old 07-17-2018, 08:48 AM
 
Location: London, U.K.
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I thought i would leave a link to Cleopatra's death, the last Pharaoh, although Greek she thought she was ISIS on Earth and was heavily involved in constructing the Julian Calendar.


https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/F..._by_Rixens.jpg


The Roman Senate hated Cleopatra, they thought that Julius Caesar would want to become a god and emperor, thus being influenced by her. They thought she was ugly, however she managed to have an affair with two of the most powerful men in the world, being Caesar and Mark Antony.

Her sister Arsinoe was good looking, so i suspect that Cleopatra was as well!


Link to face reconstruction of Arsinoe below:-




http://www.lifesci.dundee.ac.uk/news...opatras-sister

Last edited by Derek Smith; 07-17-2018 at 09:08 AM..
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Old 07-17-2018, 09:04 AM
 
Location: ☀️ SFL (hell for me-wife loves it)
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Very interesting read, glad you started this thread.

*I don't know if it's because your link is from the other side of the pond, but it gives me an error code and won't let me see it.
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Old 07-17-2018, 09:55 AM
 
Location: London, U.K.
88 posts, read 36,250 times
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Hi Teradown,


I have changed the link above on face reconstruction of Cleopatra's sister, Arsinoe, it should work now.


You have no idea yet what i will show, even with beliefs regarding constitutions that go back to ancient Egypt, even the one across the pond, but i get ahead of my self, but i will wet your appetite, regarding the Gregorian Calendar. Cleopatra thought she was ISIS on Earth, her beliefs were that when she died she would fly to the brightest star in the sky being the Isis star, SIRIUS. Cleopatra looks down on you only at midnight at New Year as Sirius culminates, so this year give her a wave, ha ha!


Later i will show you how this was worked out deliberately, link below:-


See brightest star Sirius at midnight on New Year's Eve | Astronomy Essentials | EarthSky
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Old 07-17-2018, 11:01 AM
 
Location: London, U.K.
88 posts, read 36,250 times
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SOSIGENES.


There is little known about the architect of the Julian Calendar other than he was a student at the Great Library of Alexandria, and was Greek, being a top astronomer. Some scholars say that Sosigenes is credited with a book on the orbit of Mercury, that suggests that he knew Mercury orbited the Sun, and wrote a book on revolving spheres, other scholars disagree believing this was a different Sosigenes who lived during the end of the second century AD.


THE JULIAN CALENDAR.


When Julius Caesar visited Egypt, Cleopatra Vll mentioned to him how the Egyptians set their time by the Sun rather than the Moon, and introduced him to the astronomer Sosigenes, he told Caesar about Cleopatra's ancestor Ptolemy III's calendar where he had tried to implement a leap year day every 4 years.
Caesar liked it, and he and Cleopatra negotiated the fine details such as the date of New Year. One reason why 1st January was adopted was from 0153 BC, the Roman Consuls had been elected to rule their regions on this date.


I'll finish this tomorrow with astronomy picture included for 1st January 0045 BC.
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Old 07-18-2018, 08:11 AM
 
Location: London, U.K.
88 posts, read 36,250 times
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Pliny, the ancient Roman historian wrote something curious about these times that is interesting regarding the research in this thread, "There were three main schools, the Chaldaeans, the Egyptians and the Greeks, and to these a fourth was added in our country by Caesar during his dictatorship, (Mystery School?) who with the assistance of the learned astronomer Sosigenes brought the separate years back into conformity with the course of the Sun".


You may wonder if Caesar set up one of the ancient religious mystery schools, that the western mystery tradition is made up from, being a gnosis of secret religious esoteric information included from the hermetic secrets from Egypt to the Eleusian mysteries that originated in Greece. These secret "clubs" have existed up to the present times like the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. Some of these societies can cause a lot of problems, please scroll down link below to "Mass Murder and Suicides", if you then scroll down to second paragraph, you will read that after death, they thought that they all meet up again on SIRIUS:-


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Order_of_the_Solar_Temple



The hopeless Roman Calendar was sick in Julius Caesar's time, partly due to political tinkering, being truly out of synch with the seasons, so before starting the Julian Calendar , 0046 BC had to be 445 days long, which was called the "YEAR OF CONFUSION", The new Julian Calendar start on 1st January 0045 BC, the calendar was 365 and a quarter days but was too long by 11 minutes and 12seconds, but this must have been known to Caesar and Sosigenes, perhaps they thought that this could be left to future generations to correct, as Hipparchus had calcalated that a leap year day every 4 years would create a small error, over a hundred years before. However the Julian Calendar was a stunning calcalation for the ancient world, it must be remembered that few owned a watch in the 20th Century that was accurate to 11 minutes in a year before the quartz watch was invented, and that was 2,000 years later!


I'll continue soon.
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