Location, size, and extent

Located in the northeastern US, Massachusetts is the 4th largest of the six New England states and ranks 45th in size among the 50 states.

The total area of Massachusetts is 8,284 sq mi (21,456 sq km), of which land comprises 7,824 sq mi (20,265 sq km) and inland water occupies 460 sq mi (1,191 sq km). Massachusetts extends about 190 mi (306 k) E-W; the maximum N-S extension is about 110 mi (177 km). Massachusetts is bordered on the N by Vermont and New Hampshire; on the E by the Atlantic Ocean; on the S by the Atlantic Ocean and by Rhode Island and Connecticut; and on the W by New York.

Two important islands lie south of the state's fishhook-shaped Cape Cod peninsula: Martha's Vineyard (108 sq mi or 280 sq km) and Nantucket (57 sq mi or 148 sq km). The Elizabeth Islands, SW of Cape Cod and NW of Martha's Vineyard, consist of 16 small islands separating Buzzards Bay from Vineyard Sound. The total boundary length of Massachusetts is 515 mi (829 km), including a general coastline of 192 mi (309 km); the tidal shoreline, encompassing numerous inlets and islands, is 1,519 mi (2,444 km). The state's geographic center is located in Worcester County, in the northern section of the city of Worcester.