Flora and fauna

With 10 life zones extending from prairie to mountaintop, Idaho has some 3,000 native plants. Characteristic evergreens are Douglas fir and western white pine (the state tree); oak/mountain mahogany, juniper/piñon, ponderosa pine, and spruce/fir constitute the other main forest types. Syringa is the state flower. MacFarlanes four-o'clock, water howellia, Spalding's catchfly, and Ute ladies-tresses were the state's four threatened plant species as of August 2003.

Classified as game mammals are the elk, moose, white-tailed and mule deer, pronghorn antelope, bighorn sheep, mountain goat, black bear, mountain lion, cottontail, and pigmy rabbit. Several varieties of pheasant, partridge, quail, and grouse are the main game birds, and there are numerous trout, salmon, bass, and whitefish species in Idaho's lakes and streams. Rare animal species include the wolverine, kit fox, and pika. The grizzly bear and bald eagle are listed as threatened, while the woodland caribou, gray (timber) wolf, American peregrine falcon, and whooping crane are endangered. A total of 20 animal species were listed as threatened or endangered as of August 2003, including the woodland caribou, whooping crane, and three species of salmon. There were six national wildlife refuges covering 133,456 acres (54,009 ha) in the mid-1990s.