Commonwealth of Massachusetts
ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: Derived from the name of the Massachuset Indian tribe that lived on Massachusetts Bay; the name is thought to mean "at or about the Great Hill." NICKNAME: The Bay State. CAPITAL: Boston. ENTERED UNION: 6 February 1788 (6th). SONG: "All Hail to Massachusetts." FOLK SONG: "Massachusetts." POEM: "Blue Hills of Massachusetts." MOTTO: Ense petit placidam sub libertate quietem (By the sword we seek peace, but peace only under liberty). COAT OF ARMS: On a blue shield, an Indian depicted in gold holds in his right hand a bow and in his left an arrow pointing downward. Above the bow is a five-pointed silver star. The crest shows a bent right arm holding a broadsword. Around the shield beneath the crest is a banner with the state motto in green. FLAG: The coat of arms on a white field. OFFICIAL SEAL: Same as the coat of arms, with the inscription Sigillum Reipublicae Massachusettensis (Seal of the Republic of Massachusetts). HEROINE: Deborah Sampson. BIRD: Chickadee. HORSE: Morgan horse. DOG: Boston terrier. MARINE MAMMAL: Right whale. FISH: Cod. INSECT: Ladybug. FLOWER: Mayflower (ground laurel). TREE: American elm. GEM: Rhodonite. MINERAL: Babingtonite. ROCK: Roxbury puddingstone. HISTORICAL ROCK: Plymouth Rock. EXPLORER ROCK: Dighton Rock. BUILDING AND MONUMENT STONE: Granite. FOSSIL: Theropod dinosaur tracks. BEVERAGE: Cranberry juice. LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr., 3rd Monday in January; Washington's Birthday, 3rd Monday in February; Patriots' Day, 3rd Monday in April; Lafayette Day, 20 May; Memorial Day, last Monday in May; Independence Day, 4 July; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Columbus Day, 2nd Monday in October; Veterans Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, appointed by the governor, customarily the 4th Thursday in November; Christmas Day, 25 December. TIME: 7 AM EST = noon GMT.