State of North Dakota
ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: The state was formerly the northern section of Dakota Territory; dakota is a Siouan word meaning "allies." NICKNAME: Peace Garden State. CAPITAL: Bismarck. ENTERED UNION: 2 November 1889 (39th). SONG: "North Dakota Hymn." MARCH: "Flickertail March." MOTTO: Liberty and Union, Now and Forever, One and Inseparable. FLAG: The flag consists of a blue field with yellow fringes; on each side is depicted an eagle with outstretched wings, holding in one talon a sheaf of arrows, in the other an olive branch, and in his beak a banner inscribed with the words " E Pluribus Unum." Below the eagle are the words "North Dakota"; above it are 13 stars surmounted by a sunburst. OFFICIAL SEAL: In the center is an elm tree; beneath it are a sheaf of wheat, a plow, an anvil, and a bow and three arrows, and in the background an Indian chases a buffalo toward a setting sun. The depiction is surrounded by the state motto and the words "Great Seal State of North Dakota October 1st 1889" encircle the whole. BIRD: Western meadowlark. FISH: Northern pike. FLOWER: Wild prairie rose. TREE: American elm. GRASS: Western wheatgrass. BEVERAGE: Milk. FOSSIL: Teredo petrified wood. LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr., 3rd Monday in January; George Washington's Birthday, 3rd Monday in February; Good Friday, March or April; Memorial Day, last Monday in May; Independence Day, 4 July; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Veterans Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November; Christmas Day, 25 December. TIME 6 AM CST = noon GMT; 5 AM MST = noon GMT.
Crawford, Lewis F. History of North Dakota. 3 vols. Chicago: American Historical Society, 1931.
DeLorme Mapping Company. North Dakota Atlas & Gazetteer: Topo Maps of the Entire State: Back Roads, Outdoor Recreation. Yarmouth, Me.: DeLorme, 1999.
Federal Writers' Project. North Dakota: A Guide to the Northern Prairie State. Reprint. New York: Somerset, 1980 (orig. 1938).
Goodman, L. R., and R. J. Eidem. The Atlas of North Dakota. Fargo: North Dakota Studies, Inc., 1976.
Hintz, Martin. North Dakota. New York: Children's Press, 2000.
Hoover, Herbert T. The Sioux and Other Native American Cultures of the Dakotas: An Annotated Bibliography. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1993.
McMacken, Robin. The Dakotas: Off the Beaten Path. Old Saybrook, Conn.: Globe Pequot Press, 1998.
North Dakota Economic Development Commission. North Dakota Growth Indicators. Bismarck, 1984.
Raaen, Aagot. Grass of the Earth: Immigrant Life in Dakota Country. St. Paul, Minn.: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 1994.
Robinson, Elwyn B. History of North Dakota. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1966.
Tweton, D. Jerome, and Theodore Jelliff. North Dakota—The Heritage of a People. Fargo: North Dakota Institute for Regional Studies, 1976.
——. and Daniel F. Rylance. The Years of Despair: North Dakota in the Depression. Grand Forks: Oxcart Press, 1973.
University of North Dakota. Bureau of Business and Economic Research. Statistical Abstract of North Dakota 1983. Grand Forks: University of North Dakota Press, 1983.
Wilkins, Robert P., and Wynona H. North Dakota: A Bicentennial History. New York: Norton, 1977.