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OKLAHOMA

State of Oklahoma

Oklahoma

Oklahoma

ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: Derived from the Choctaw Indian words okla humma, meaning "land of the red people." NICKNAME: The Sooner State. CAPITAL: Oklahoma City. ENTERED UNION: 16 November 1907 (46th). SONG: "Oklahoma!" POEM: "Howdy Folks." MOTTO: Labor omnia vincit (Labor conquers all things). FLAG: On a blue field, a peace pipe, and an olive branch cross an Osage warrior's shield, which is decorated with small crosses and from which seven eagle feathers descend; the word "Oklahoma" appears below. OFFICIAL SEAL: Each point of a five-pointed star incorporates the emblem of an Indian nation: (clockwise from top) Chickasaw, Choctaw, Seminole, Creek, and Cherokee. In the center, a frontiersman and Indian shake hands before the goddess of justice; behind them are symbols of progress, including a farm, train, and mill. Surrounding the large star are 45 small ones and the words "Great Seal of the State of Oklahoma 1907." ANIMAL: American buffalo (bison). BIRD: Scissor-tailed flycatcher. FISH: White bass (sand bass). REPTILE: Collared lizard (mountain boomer). FLORAL EMBLEM: Mistletoe. TREE: Redbud. GRASS: Indian grass. STONE: Barite rose (rose rock). LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr., 3rd Monday in January; Washington's Birthday, 3rd Monday in February; Memorial Day, last Monday in May; Independence Day, 4 July; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Columbus Day, 2nd Monday in October; Veterans Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November; Christmas Day, 25 December. TIME: 6 AM CST = noon GMT.

50 BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bicha, Karel D. The Czechs in Oklahoma. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980.

Blessing, Patrick. The British and Irish in Oklahoma. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980.

Brown, Kenny L. Italians in Oklahoma. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1978.

Fischer, John. From the High Plains. New York: Harper & Row, 1978.

Franklin, Jimmie Lewis. Blacks in Oklahoma. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980.

Gibson, Arrell M. The Oklahoma Story. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1978.

Goble, Danney. Progressive Oklahoma: The Making of A New Kind of State. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980.

Harris, LaDonna. LaDonna Harris: A Comanche Life. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2000.

Morgan, Anne, H. Wayne, and Anne Hodges. Oklahoma: A Bicentennial History. New York: Norton, 1977.

Morgan, Anne and H. Wayne. Oklahoma: New Views of the Forty-sixth State. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1982.

Rohrs, Richard. Germans in Oklahoma. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980.

Smith, Michael. Mexicans in Oklahoma. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980.

Stein, Howard F., and Robert F. Hill, eds. The Culture of Oklahoma. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993.

Strain, Jack M. An Outline of Oklahoma Government. Edmond, Okla.: Central State University, 1978.

Strickland, Rennard. Indians in Oklahoma. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980.

Sullivan, Lynn M. Adventure Guide to Oklahoma. Edison, N.J.: Hunter Publishing, 1999.

Tobias, Henry J. Jews in Oklahoma. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980.