State of Vermont

ORIGIN OF STATE NAME: Derived from the French words vert (green) and mont (mountain). NICKNAME: The Green Mountain State. CAPITAL: Montpelier. ENTERED UNION: 4 March 1791 (14th). SONG: "These Green Mountains." MOTTO: Freedom and Unity. COAT OF ARMS: Rural Vermont is represented by a pine tree in the center, three sheaves of grain on the left, and a cow on the right, with a background of fields and mountains; a deer crests the shield. Below are crossed pine branches and the state name and motto. FLAG: The coat of arms on a field of dark blue. OFFICIAL SEAL: Bisecting Vermont's golden seal is a row of wooded hills above the state name; the upper half has a spearhead, pine tree, cow, and two sheaves of wheat, while two more sheaves and the state motto fill the lower half. ANIMAL: Morgan horse. BIRD: Hermit thrush. INSECT: Honeybee. FISH: Brook trout (cold water); walleye pike (warm water). FLOWER: Red clover. TREE: Sugar maple. BEVERAGE: Milk. LEGAL HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr., 3rd Monday in January; Lincoln's Birthday, 12 February; Washington's Birthday, 3rd Monday in February; Town Meeting Day, 1st Tuesday in March; Memorial Day, 30 May; Independence Day, 4 July; Bennington Battle Day, 16 August; Labor Day, 1st Monday in September; Columbus Day, 2nd Monday in October; Veterans Day, 11 November; Thanksgiving Day, 4th Thursday in November; Christmas Day, 25 December. TIME : 7 AM EST = noon GMT.


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Bearse, Ray, ed. Vermont: A Guide to the Green Mountain State. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1968.

Crockett, Walter H. History of Vermont. 5 vols. New York: Century, 1921.

Davis, Allen Freeman. Postcards from Vermont: A Social History, 1905–1945. Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 2002.

Husher, Helen. Off the Leash: Subversive Journeys Around Vermont. Woodstock, Vt.: Countryman Press, 1999.

Klyza, Christopher McGrory, and Stephen C. Trombulak. The Story of Vermont: A Natural and Cultural History. Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 1999.

Morrissey, Charles T. Vermont: A Bicentennial History. New York: Norton, 1981.

Sherman, Micheal, and Jennie Versteeg (eds.). We Vermonters: Perspectives on the Past . Montpelier: Vermont Historical Society, 1992.